GEOLOGIE TREFWOORD E


         zie onder GEOLOGIE   —->  GEOLOGIE TREFWOORD 

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Earthquake  

A series of elastic waves propagated in the earth, initiated where stress along a fault exceeds the elastic limitof the rock so that sudden movement occurs along the fault.

SeismogramNIU LogoNorth Illinois University

A seismogram from the March 11 Japanese earthquake recorded at the NIU seismic station in Davis Hall. – See more at: http://www.niutoday.info/2011/03/14/niu-seismic-station-detects-japanese-quake/#sthash.OGTFjUZi.dpuf

—>-beving (-en) 2 3  *Aardbeving ( earthquakes)   

  japan 2011

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Ecology  : The study of relationships between organisms and their environments.

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Edele metalen = metalen, die in de natuur niet worden aangetast door oxydatie.

Het gewicht van edelstenen en  het edel metaal goud wordt uitgedrukt in karaat. Karaten waren de zaadjes van een Johannesbroodboom. Ze werden in het Midden-Oosten gebruikt voor het wegen van edelstenen.
Nu is 1 karaat = 0.2 gram.
In Engeland is 1 ounce = 20 pennyweight. 1 pennyweight = 24 grains. Volgens een wet van 1066 is een pennyweight het gewicht van 32 tarwekorrels, die midden uit de aar zijn geplukt.

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Eembodem

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Eerstelingen  / Bij een vast gesteente is de korrelgrootte de gemiddelde doorsnede van de mineraalkorrels. De korrelgroottewordt vastgesteld aan de grondmassa, waarin overigens soms flinke grote kristallen kunnen liggen.

Vb.fenokristen eerstelingen bij porfieren.  (overigens liggen deze grote(grofkorrelige )   fenokristen (= grote kristallen ) meestal in een fynkorrelige massa

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Effluent
Eilandenbogen

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Ejecta :  Rock fragments, glass, and other material thrown out of an impact crater or a volcano.

Ejecta (from the Latin: “things thrown”, singular “ejectum”) refers to particles ejected from an area. In volcanology, in particular, the term refers to particles that came out of a volcanic vent, traveled through the air or under water, and fell back on the ground surface or on the ocean floor.

Ejecta can consist of:

  1. Juvenile particles – (fragmented magma and free crystals)
  2. Cognate or accessory particles – older volcanic rocks from the same volcano
  3. Accidental particles – derived from the rocks under the volcano.

In planetary geology, this term includes the debris that is ejected during the formation of an impact crater,

Volcanic Ejecta

Volcano Ejecta
I was initially drawn to this rock by the folded and distorted lines around the edges.  As I looked at it closer and rotated it in the light I saw that it might be a geode.  The crystals are at the far left in the dark place.  I feel sure that the distortion of the lines was caused my heat and pressure.  The yellowish center may be lava.  That is why I think it was ejected from a volcano
Volcano Ejecta
As I looked closer, I saw the granularity in the “lava.”  And my attention was drawn to that dark area with crystals.
Volcano Ejecta
These crystals may not be diamonds but a diamond is one crystal which is ejected from a volcano.
Volcanic ejecta around Montana Colorado

Montana Colorado

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Ejecta blanket   :      Rock material (crushed rock, large blocks, breccia, and dust) ejected from an impact crater or explosion   crater and deposited over the surrounding area.

Meteorite impact ejecta (left) compared with volcanic deposits (right) showing closely similar structures made of dust particles. The top two photos show accretionary lapilli in density current deposits, whereas bottom two photos show pellets that formed when dust in the atmosphere clumped together and simply fell onto the land surface.
Credit: From Branney and Brown 2011 (Journal of Geology 199, 275-292) 

http://www.livescience.com/30855-gas-blast-from-meteorite-strike-resembled-volcanic-eruption.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ejecta_blanket

A view of the south (shadowed) and west (sunlit) crater walls and floor from the rim. The crater is about 550 feet deep and is deeper than the surrounding plain outside the crater. Studies indicate that between 100 and 150 feet of post-impact material has washed into the enclosed crater.See the following image to know something of the size of the bolide that created the crater.

http://earthly-musings.blogspot.be/2010/12/ground-zero-hike-into-meteor-crater.html

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Elastic deformation : Temporary deformation of a substance, after which the material returns to its original size and shape. Example: the bending of mica flakes.

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Elastic limit :  The maximum stress that a given substance can withstand without undergoing permanent deformation either by solid flow or by rupture.

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Elastic-rebound theory :  The theory that earthquakes result from energy released by faulting; the sudden release of stored strain creates earthquake waves.

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Elementen

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Elsterien   –> Begin deze eeuw benoemden Penck en Brückner vier glacialen van het Pleistoceen met namen van Zuid-Duitse riviertjes:

Günz,                Mindel,          Riss en Würm.                           (In Noord Europa zijn voor perioden met ijstijden namen in gebruik als:)

Elsterien,     Saalien en       Weichselien.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elsterien

Indeling van het Pleistoceen
Internationaal Noordwest Europa
Serie Sub-serie Etage Super-etage Etage Tijd (Ma)
Holoceen jonger
Pleistoceen Laat Tarantien (onbenoemd) WeichselienGlaciaal of Stadiaal 0,0115 – 0,116
Eemien 0,116 – 0,128
Midden Ionien SaalienGlaciaal of Stadiaal 0,128 – 0,238
Oostermeer 0,238 – 0,243
(onbenoemd)Glaciaal of Stadiaal 0,243 – 0,324
Belvédère 0,324 – 0,338
(onbenoemd)Glaciaal of Stadiaal 0,338 – 0,386
Holsteinien 0,386 – 0,418
ElsterienGlaciaal of Stadiaal 0,418 – 0,465
Cromerien diverse etages 0,465 – 0,850
Vroeg Calabrien
Bavelien diverse etages 0,85 – 1,07
Menapien diverse etages
Waalien diverse etages
Eburonien diverse etages
Gelasien Tiglien diverse etages 1,80 – 2,40
Pretiglien diverse etages 2,40 – 2,588
Plioceen Piacenzien Reuverien ouder

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Eltvillertuf 2
Endemisch

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End moraine : / Terminal moraine   :  A ridge of till that accumulates at the margin of a glacier.

form-moraine

Melting at a glacier margin causes the ice to thin, and ground-up rock debris carried in the base of the ice or dragged along beneath the glacier is deposited. When the ice margin remains in the same place for a relatively long time (tens to hundreds of years), enough debris flows to the glacier’s leading edge and piles up to form a large end moraine on the landscape.

http://crystal.isgs.uiuc.edu/maps-data-pub/publications/geobits/geobit2.shtml

What are end moraines made of?

end-moraine

The unsorted mixture of debris deposited by a glacier is called till. Most end moraines in Illinois are thick ridges of till. A ground moraine, the relatively flat, low-lying landscape across which the melting glacier retreated, consists of a thinner layer of till. Sheetlike deposits of sand and gravel, called outwash plains, were left behind by meltwater streams flowing away from the glacier.

During the Wisconsin glacial episode, a vast sheet of ice formed over most of Canada. Glaciers flowed away from the center of the ice sheet. The glacier that flowed through the Lake Michigan basin and into northeastern Illinois reached its southernmost extent at Shelbyville about 20,000 years ago.

bylot_island_moraine_large

End moraine of a piedmont glacier, Bylot Island, Canada The sharp-crested ridge of till end moraine) was pushed up at the ice margin during the glacier’s maximum advance, probably during the Little Ice Age.
Source: Natural Resources Canada. Unattributed photograph. Copyright Terrain Sciences Division, Geological Survey of Canada.

http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/gallery/moraines.html

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Endichnia

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Endogene krachten

Endogene processen

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Endorheïsche gebieden  Endorheische  gebieden = gebieden zonder afvloeiing naar zee. Het water verdwijnt hier alleen door verdamping.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endorheic_basin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_endorheic_basins

Caspian Sea —>  vb Kaspische zeegebied  ….

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Ensemble

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ENTHALPIE   <  Enthalpie is warmte-inhoud (begrip uit de thermodynamica).

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Entrenched meander  : A meander cut into the underlying rock as a result of regional uplift or lowering of the regional base level.

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Eoceen 2

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eoceen

eoceen

in MA

Eolian : Pertaining to wind.

Eolian environment  :The sedimentary environment of deserts, where sediment is transported and deposited primarily by wind. epicenter The area on the earth’s surface that lies directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Eolisch(e) 2 3 4 5
-ablatie
-corrasie
-transport

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Epicentra

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Epicentrum  <Een epicentrum is de plaats aan het aardoppervlak recht boven de aardbevingshaard.     Zie ook:  Hypocentrum

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Epichnia
Epicontinentale bekkens
Epicontinentale zeeën 2
Epidermisplooiing
Epidootgroep

Epigenese
Epigenetisch dal
Epigenetische mineralen

Epigenetische rivier
Epilimnion
Epilithe
Epirogene meren
Epirogene verbuiging
Epirogenese 2 3 4 5 6
Epirogenetische opheffingen
Epixatie
Epizoair

Epoch   :  A division of geologic time; a subdivision of a period. Example: Pleistocene epoch.
Equisetophyta 2

Era
Eratheem

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Eratosthenian period :

The period of lunar when large craters, the rays of which are no longer visible, such as Eratosthenes, were formed (from 3.1 billion to 0.8 billion years ago).

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Eratosthenian system :The system of lunar rocks formed during the Eratosthenian period. It is older than the Copernican system but younger than the Imbrian system.

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Erg

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Erosie :  ook wel afbraak genoemd, is het gecombineerde effect van alle processen die meewerken aan de afbraak van losse en vaste gesteenten. Hiertoe behoren o.a. verwering, transport, chemische en mechanische werking van stromend water en de mechanische werking van wind, ijs, enz.

Erosie 2 3
-achterwaartse
-basis 2
-breedte
-glaciale 

Snelheid  //Erosiesnelheid..Uit statistieken, gebaseerd op sediment-afvoer door rivieren bleek iets van 0,3 mm/jaar voor het Rhône-stroomgebied.De Alpen eroderen dus ongeveer even hard als ze groeien. In vlakke gebieden gaat stroomgebied -erosie véél langzamer. Voor  de Niger kom je uit op 0,05 mm/jaar:                                        http://ks360352.kimsufi.com/redbooks/a144/iahs_144_0285.pdf

De grond-erosie in de vlaktes van Australië gaan nog veel langzamer

-terrassen
-vlakte

Erosion  :The processes that loosen sediment and move it from one place to another on the earth’s surface. Agents of erosion include water, ice, wind, and gravity.

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Erratic  : A large boulder carried by glacial ice to an area far removed from its point of origin.

http://history.alberta.ca/historicsites/

“The Big Rock” is the world’s largest known glacial erratic–rock transported far from its place of origin by glacial ice. Big Rock, also known as the Okotoks Erratic, is the largest rock in the Foothills Erratics Train, a group of rocks that were carried by ice along the mountain front and dropped as the glacier melted some 10,000 years ago.

Okotoks Erratic     Okotoks Erratic

Okotoks Erratic

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Erratica

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Ertsgangen
Ertswinning

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Erupties

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Escarpment  : A cliff or very steep slope.

Ancient cedars on escarpment cliff face. Photo: Fiona Reid

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escarpment

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Esker:  A long, narrow, sinuous ridge of stratified glacial drift deposited by a stream flowing beneath a glacier in a tunnel or in a subglacial stream bed.

The Cap Sauer Esker (Illinois )

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Estuaria

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Een estuarium is een vaak min of meer trechtervormige monding van een rivier, die binnen het bereik der getijdestromingen ligt. Zie ook:–> Delta
Estuarium

Estuary : A bay at the mouth of a river formed by subsidence of the sand or by a rise in sea level. Fresh water from the river mixes with and dilutes seawater in an estuary.

°   Een etage is een eenheid binnen de chrono(= tijd)stratigrafische indeling. Zie ook:  Serie
Etage

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Eugeocline (plate tectonics)  :

geocline in which volcanism is associated with clastic sedimentation. Eugeoclines are usually associated with an island arc.                    An association of calcalkaline volcanics, greywackes, and shales. The word is now little used, unlike the contrasting term ‘miogeocline’.

Eugeosyncline  :geosyncline situated seaward from a continent and characterized by sediments deposited by turbidity currents and derived in part from a volcanic arc.

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Eutroof

 

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Eustatische 2 3

Eustatic change of sea level: A worldwide rise or fall in sea level resulting from a change in the volume of water or the capacity of ocean basins.

 

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°Evaporieten zijn door indamping van zeewater of zoutmeren ontstane zoutafzettingen.

Boorkern van Rötzout © TNO-NITG
Zie ook: Halokinese   Zoutkussen   Zoutpijler
Evaporieten 2 3 4
-fossiele

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Evaporite  : A rock composed of minerals derived from evaporation of mineralized water. Examples: rock salt, gypsum.               Evaporite: –> A rock formed by the evaporation of saline water, e.g. rock salt.

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-rock-salt.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halite

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Evolutie 2 3

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Exfoliatie 2

Exfoliation  : A weathering process by which concentric shells, slabs, sheets, or flakes are successively broken loose and stripped away from a rock mass.                                                                                                                                                                                         Exfoliation: A form of weathering where, due to expansion and contraction during varying thermal conditions, thin layers split away from rocks.

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Exichnia

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Exogene processen 2
Exogeologie
Explosiekrater

ExposureBedrock not covered with soil or regolithoutcrop. extrusive rock A rock formed from a mass of magma that flowed out on the surface of the earth. Example: basalt.                                                                                                                                                     Exposure: An exposed area of in situ rock.

Extraterrestrische
Extrusiegesteente

 

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