The origin of species


NOTES   ON  ”  THE ORIGIN OF SPEC IES  “

WAARSCHUWING ( voor creationisten )
Het boek van Darwin noemt “On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection  “… en  NIET  “On the Origin of Life”!
°Het ontstaan van leven uit levenloze materie valt NIET  binnen het gebied van de evolutietheorie. 
°Evenmin als het ontstaan van het heelal…

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*On the Origin of Species 

— “Over het ontstaan van soorten” — is het bekendste werk van Charles Darwin (1809 — 1882)
Hierin ontvouwt hij de evolutietheorie die zoveel opschudding zou veroorzaken in de negentiende eeuw.
De impact van dit boek was enorm, zowel in natuurwetenschappelijke kring als daarbuiten.

Het volgende is in het kort Darwins theorie:

°via het natuurlijke proces van het selecteren van de best aangepaste (erfelijke) varianten (¨*1)onder de overproductie  van afstammelingen en  levensvormen, verandert het levende doorlopend, en zo ontstaan uiteindelijk wat men “soorten” noemt ( die niets anders zijn dan een punt in een continuum van stamlijnen  ) .

(*1) – today we know that    “adaptive fitness” refers solely to
the relative reproductive output of carriers of different genes.

– *De nieuwe theorie maakte het” Scheppingsverhaal”( Genesis en andere  mythische scheppingsverhalen  )  met de grond gelijk.
Om die reden is zij onophoudelijk bekritiseerd.
In 1859 verscheen de eerste druk.

Vanwege vele kritieken veranderde Darwin veel.  

Darwin is een grondlegger van de evolutieleer.
Wat niet inhoud dat de huidige denkbeelden nog steeds letterlijk dezelfde zijn , maar het is altijd in alle wetenschapsgebieden belangrijk te weten hoe de denkbeelden zijn ontstaan
Het oorspronkelijke   boek moet je  lezen als een wetenschap- historisch boek.
Er zijn sinds de publicatie van het boek veel nieuwe ontwikkelingen gekomen die dingen nuanceren , aanvullen , verbeteren  en  zelfs  verwerpen.
Toch is het interessant ook  om te lezen hoe darwin tot zijn evolutieleer is gekomen  ….


Vandaag de dag wordt de evolutietheorie weliswaar even algemeen aanvaard als de atoomtheorie of de gravitatietheorie, maar dat neemt niet weg dat zij de gemoederen nog steeds in beweging brengt,en dat ongetwijfeld nog geruime tijd zal blijven doen.
Regelmatig laait weer de discussie op over de juistheid van Darwins theorie (bv. in het natuurwetenschappelijk onderwijs en in kerkelijke kringen); daarom is herdruk en  een  vertaling naar modern taalgebruik nuttig.(voetnoot 1)

Darwins evolutietheorie is en blijft een van de meest revolutionaire visies op mens en natuur uit de wereldgeschiedenis, en het boek ” Over het ontstaan van soorten”  is een van de belangrijkste teksten  van de moderne tijd.

Man, this guy didn’t know anything

bron ;  .volkskrantblog   bericht/240948    door     Tomasso Agricola


Je hebt (als journalist of blogger  )al een aantal artikelen geschreven over evolutie, de evolutietheorie en Charles Darwin, maar je hebt nog nooit The origin of species… gelezen. ?
Dan is het in 2009, 150 jaar na de eerste druk, eindelijk zover.
Je leest eindelijk het boek waar alles mee begon (ok, ik overdrijf hier een beetje).
Hoe komt het dan op je over?

Dit experiment wordt onder de titel “Blogging the Origin” gedaan door John Whitfield.
Hij leest, voor het eerst The origin of species…, hoofdstuk na hoofdstuk, en blogged daarover (in het Engels).

Het is zeer interessant.

 

De uitspraak in de titel hierboven is de start van het blog over het eerste hoofdstuk: Variation under domestication.

images

http://scienceblogs.com/bloggingtheorigin/

Voetnoot

(1)

Overigens zijn er al ( met wisselend succes )pogingen ondernomen om “Darwin’s Origin” the up-daten …
Een van de bekendste is :
“ALMOST LIKE A WHALE ” van STEVE JONES 

(2)

Een van de jongste :
ADAM RUTHERFORD 

images

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/series/theoriginofspecies

Er waren reeds geruime tijd evolutietheorieën in omloop voor het werk van Charles Darwin in 1859 verscheen.

 

De belangrijkste innovatie van Charles betrof dus niet zo zeer het idee van evolutie op zich maar vooral dat van natuurlijke selectie; dit was ook het belangrijkste punt van onderscheid met de ideeën van zijn grootvader.

In de theorie van Charles treden biologische veranderingen tussen generaties op een geheel willekeurige manier op.
Veranderingen die in een bepaalde leefomgeving gunstig zijn leiden tot betere overlevings- en dus reproductiekansen.
De meest ‘fitte’ leden van een populatie, dat wil zeggen, zij die het best toegerust zijn op hun omgeving, zullen aldus de populatie
gaan overheersen.

 

 

 

( hierboven :  Giraffen evolutie volgens  het  Lamarckisme   )

Volgens Erasmus Darwin  hebben giraffes een lange nek omdat zij generaties lang hebben geprobeerd om bij blaadjes hoog in een boom te kunnen geraken(= dat is     orthodox “Lamarckisme” ) ;

Volgens Charles Darwin  zijn giraffe-varianten   met een toevallig langere nek de populatie gaan overheersen omdat zij zich beter konden voeden.(vooral in moeilijke  tijden )

Om zijn evolutieleer te onderbouwen zou Darwin op latere leeftijd veel tijd doorbrengen met potten en planten in zijn eigen botanische kassen.

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NYT   

Darwin discovered two major forces in evolution — natural selection and sexual selection — and wrote three radical scientific masterpieces, 
“On the Origin of Species” (1859), 
“The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex” (1871) and 
“The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals” (1872). 

The “Origin,” of course, is what he is best known for. 
This volume, colossal in scope yet minutely detailed, laid the foundations of modern biology.
Here, Darwin presented extensive and compelling evidence that

all living beings — including humans — have evolved from a common ancestor, 
and that natural selection is the chief force driving evolutionary change. 

Sexual selection, ( in “Descent” ) he argued, was an additional force, responsible for spectacular features like the tail feathers of peacocks that
are useless for (or even detrimental to) survival but essential for seduction.

Before the “Origin,” similarities and differences between species were mere curiosities;
Questions as to why a certain plant is succulent like a cactus or deciduous like a maple could be answered only, “Because.”
Biology itself was nothing more than a vast exercise in catalog and description.
After the “Origin,” all organisms became connected, part of the same, profoundly ancient, family tree.
Similarities and differences became comprehensible and explicable.
In short, Darwin gave us a framework for asking questions about the natural world, and about ourselves.

He was not right about everything. 
How could he have been?
Famously, he didn’t know how genetics works; as for DNA — well, the structure of the molecule wasn’t discovered until 1953. 
So today’s view of evolution is much more nuanced than his. 
We have incorporated genetics, and expanded and refined our understanding of natural selection, and of the other forces in evolution. 

But what is astonishing is how much Darwin did know, and how far he saw. 
His imagination told him, for example, that many female animals have a sense of beauty — that they like to mate with the most beautiful males.
For this he was ridiculed. But we know that he was right. Still more impressive: he was not afraid to apply his ideas to humans.
He thought that natural selection had operated on us, just as it had on fruit flies and centipedes.

As we delve into DNA sequences, we can see natural selection acting at the level of genes.
Our genes hold evidence of our intimate associations with other beings, from cows to malaria parasites and grains.
The latest research allows us to trace the genetic changes that differentiate us from our primate cousins, and shows that large parts of the human
genome bear the stamp of evolution by means of natural selection.

I think Darwin would have been pleased. 
But not surprised.

The “Origin” changed everything. Before the “Origin,” the diversity of life could only be catalogued and described; afterwards, it could be explained and understood. Before the “Origin,” species were generally seen as fixed entities, the special creations of a deity; afterwards, they became connected together on a great family tree that stretches back, across billions of years, to the dawn of life. Perhaps most importantly, the “Origin” changed our view of ourselves. It made us as much a part of nature as hummingbirds and bumblebees (or humble-bees, as Darwin called them); we, too, acquired a family tree with a host of remarkable and distinguished ancestors.

The reason the “Origin” was so powerful, compelling and persuasive, the reason Darwin succeeded while his predecessors failed, is that in it he does not just describe how evolution by natural selection works. He presents an enormous body of evidence culled from every field of biology then known. He discusses subjects as diverse as pigeon breeding in Ancient Egypt, the rudimentary eyes of cave fish, the nest-building instincts of honeybees, the evolving size of gooseberries (they’ve been getting bigger), wingless beetles on the island of Madeira and algae in New Zealand. One moment, he’s considering fossil animals like brachiopods (which had hinged shells like clams, but with a different axis of symmetry); the next, he’s discussing the accessibility of nectar in clover flowers to different species of bee.

At the same time, he uses every form of evidence at his disposal: he observes, argues, compares, infers and describes the results of experiments he has read about, or in many cases, personally conducted. For example, one of Darwin’s observations is that the inhabitants of islands resemble — but differ subtly from — those of the nearest continents. So: birds and bushes on islands off the coast of South America resemble South American birds and bushes; islands near Africa are populated by recognizably African forms.

He argues that the reason for this is that new islands become colonized by beings from the nearest continents, and that the new inhabitants then begin evolving independently. He then asks: can animals and plants from the continents get to new islands, especially those that are far out at sea? To investigate this, he conducts experiments to see how long seeds from different plants can remain immersed in saltwater and still begin to grow. In short, he tests his reasoning over and over again.

He is also, in some respects, surprisingly far-seeing. The “Origin” does not just expound natural selection. It contains a wealth of additional ideas and hypotheses, some of which Darwin went on to elaborate in other books. Among them: sexual selection. This is the idea — and it remained controversial until recently — that males in many species are burdened with showy ornaments like enormous tails because the females of their species have, by repeatedly picking the showiest males as their mates, caused them to evolve them that way.

This is not to say that the “Origin” is flawless, or that Darwin was right in every respect. It isn’t, and he wasn’t. Nor is the book a definitive account of how evolution works. It wasn’t even definitive in his lifetime: he published six editions, revising, sometimes heavily, from one to the next. (In the third edition, which appeared in 1861, he introduced a historical sketch in which he discusses his precursors, including Matthew and Wells.) Yet his knowledge of the natural world is so immense, and the scrutiny to which he subjects his ideas is so thorough and scrupulous, that the “Origin” presents a grand new vision of the world. A vision that, as far as possible given the knowledge available at the time, he worked out in every detail. A vision that changed the world forever.

(Olivia Judson,)

__________________________________

JERRY   COYNE 

The GALAPAGOS ISLANDS did not, as is often assumed, constitute a “eureka moment” for Darwin: he did not hit upon, nor even begin to formulate, his theory of “transmutation” until several years thereafter.

True, the Galápagos did constitute important evidence for the biogeographic chapters of The Origin, but this came as much from the plants (and Joseph Hooker’s analysis of them) as from the finches. Indeed, “Darwin’s finches” are not even mentioned in The Origin! This may be because Darwin botched his collections there, failing to put the island source on the collecting labels. He was forced to reconstruct the biogeography of the finches (which he at first didn’t see as a monophyletic group) using specimens collected — and properly labelled — by Darwin’s manservant and by Captain Fitzroy himself. Darwin’s failure to mention finches in The Origin may reflect his continuing uncertainty about the nature of the evidence. He knew by 1859 that the 14 species were indeed closely related (ornithologist John Gould had determined that for him), but the uncertainty about their biogeography led to confusion about what role geographic isolation played in the origin of species.

Darwin’s plant collections, on the other hand, were properly labeled, for pressing plants on the spot is more conducive to accurate recording of localities. And it was Joseph Hooker’s identification of the plants, their affinity, and especially the uniqueness of many species to specific islands, that helped convince Darwin he was on the right track.

Here, from Chapter 12, is the most famous mention of the Galápagos in The Origin. Notice Darwin’s clever use of rhetorical questions to attack creationism.

How could a Victorian reader fail to be convinced by arguments like this?

“…..The most striking and important fact for us in regard to the inhabitants of islands, is their affinity to those of the nearest mainland, without being actually the same species. Numerous instances could be given of this fact. I will give only one, that of the Galapagos Archipelago, situated under the equator, between 500 and 600 miles from the shores of South America. Here almost every product of the land and water bears the unmistakeable stamp of the American continent. There are twenty-six land birds, and twenty-five of those are ranked by Mr Gould as distinct species, supposed to have been created here; yet the close affinity of most of these birds to American species in every character, in their habits, gestures, and tones of voice, was manifest. So it is with the other animals, and with nearly all the plants, as shown by Dr. Hooker in his admirable memoir on the Flora of this archipelago. The naturalist, looking at the inhabitants of these volcanic islands in the Pacific, distant several hundred miles from the continent, yet feels that he is standing on American land. Why should this be so? why should the species which are supposed to have been created in the Galapagos Archipelago, and nowhere else, bear so plain a stamp of affinity to those created in America? There is nothing in the conditions of life, in the geological nature of the islands, in their height or climate, or in the proportions in which the several classes are associated together, which resembles closely the conditions of the South American coast: in fact there is a considerable dissimilarity in all these respects. On the other hand, there is a considerable degree of resemblance in the volcanic nature of the soil, in climate, height, and size of the islands, between the Galapagos and Cape de Verde Archipelagos: but what an entire and absolute difference in their inhabitants! The inhabitants of the Cape de Verde Islands are related to those of Africa, like those of the Galapagos to America. I believe this grand fact can receive no sort of explanation on the ordinary view of independent creation; whereas on the view here maintained, it is obvious that the Galapagos Islands would be likely to receive colonists, whether by occasional means of transport or by formerly continuous land, from America; and the Cape de Verde Islands from Africa; and that such colonists would be liable to modifications; the principle of inheritance still betraying their original birthplace….”

De evolutie van The origin…
bron :  vkblog. De_evolutie_van_The_origin

On the Origin of Species: The Preservation of Favoured Traces

images

http://benfry.com/traces/

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“Over het ontstaan van soorten door middel van natuurlijke selectie, of het behoud van bevoordeelde rassen in de strijd om het leven”
Charles Darwin
Dit is de veelgeprezen vertaling van Ludo Hellemans van de oorspronkelijke editie van On the Origin of Species uit 1859.
GRATIS DOWNLOAD

http://darwindownloads.nieuwezijds.nl/soorten.pdf

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Over het ontstaan van soorten is het bekendste werk van Charles Darwin (1809–1882).
Hierin ontvouwt hij in ‘een lang argument’ de evolutietheorie die vanaf de publicatie op 24 november 1859 tot de dag van vandaag zoveel
opschudding heeft veroorzaakt.
De impact van dit boek op het denken is enorm geweest.
Vandaag de dag wordt de evolutietheorie weliswaar even algemeen aanvaard als de atoomtheorie, maar dat neemt niet weg dat zij de gemoederen
nog steeds in beweging brengt omdat ze de grens tussen geloof en wetenschap raakt.

Darwins benadering van het leven is rationeel en natuurwetenschappelijk.
Zijn wereldbeeld is opgebouwd uit louter kenbare en verifieerbare feiten.
Hij houdt zijn lezers voor dat alle levensvormen op aarde, de mens nadrukkelijk niet uitgezonderd, zijn geproduceerd door onbezielde en
doelloze natuurkrachten.

Darwins evolutietheorie is en blijft een van de meest revolutionaire visies op mens en natuur uit de wereldgeschiedenis,
en het boek Over het ontstaan van soorten is een van de belangrijkste teksten van de moderne tijd: een onbetwiste must in het wetenschappelijk canon.

imageshttp://www.nieuwezijds.nl/lees-darwin-nu/

images (2)


COMPLETE ON LINE TEXT
imageshttp://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/

The Voyage of the Beagle 

The Origin of Species

 

Preface
Introduction
Chapter 1 – Variation Under Domestication
Chapter 2 – Variation Under Nature
Chapter 3 – Struggle for Existence
Chapter 4 – Natural Selection
Chapter 5 – Laws of Variation
Chapter 6 – Difficulties on Theory
Chapter 7 – Instinct
Chapter 8 – Hybridism
Chapter 9 – On the Imperfection of the Geological Record
Chapter 10 – On The Geological Succession of Organic Beings
Chapter 11 – Geographical Distribution
Chapter 12 – Geographical Distribution continued
Chapter 13 –
Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs
Chapter 14 – Recapitulation and Conclusion
Glossary

Charles Darwin

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MYTH’S ABOUT DARWIN’S TEXTS

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Myth 1:  >  Myths about Darwin  Darwin did not believe in the reality of species

>  Myths 2: The origin of species  Darwin did not explain the origin of species

>   Myth 3: Darwin was a Lamarckian

>  Myth 4: Darwin was a gradualist

>  Myth 5: Darwin thought evolution relied on accidents and chance

>  Myth 6: Darwin thought everything was due to natural selection

>  Myth 7: Darwin thought that Australian aborigines were closer to apes than to Europeans

>  Myth 8: Darwin was a social Darwinian

imageshttp://scienceblogs.com/evolvingthoughts/?s=myth+8+%3A+darwin+

0

Links on tsjok’s blogs

WP 

 … scene with the crow sized Archaeopteryx capturing a meal (from: Evolutionary Genetics at … Tim Spaan. Ten tijde van het uitkomen van de Origin of Species was in ieder geval het fossielenbestand niet de juiste plaats om …

→DARWINJAAR … Darwin 13.- Revolutie in het denken over evolutie 14.-The Origin of Species: het grootste waagstuk aller tijden Gert Korthof 15.-Darwin en …

→Darwinjaar Be NL Fr UK Links … werd geboren; 150 jaar geleden kwam zijn boek “On the origin op Species ” uit

→EVOLUTIE … toegevoegd dat *veel mutatie géén aanwijsbaar voor- of nadeel hebben, maar neutraal zijn. * Door toevalsfluctuaties (welke … Darwin publiceerde in 1859 zijn “On the origin of species by means of natural selection”, waarin hij de basis …

→GALAPAGOS … is where it all started… I only wish to be back among the Marine Iguana’s Slideshow … and variation took shape. And ever since On the Origin of Species was published 150 years ago this year, the modern field of( biology ) …

→SPECIATIE 1 (prof Walter Verraes ) ….van de evolutietheorie en schrijver van het boek “On the Origin of Species” (“Over het Ontstaan van Soorten”), komt bedrogen …

 

 

 

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Over tsjok45
Gepensioneerd . Improviserend jazzmuzikant . Instant composer. Jamsession fanaat Gentenaar in hart en nieren

3 Responses to The origin of species

  1. Pingback: NOTES & Terms « Tsjok's blog

  2. mestreseo zegt:

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  3. Pingback: MYTHES, MISVATTINGEN en GESCHIEDENIS-VERDRAAINGEN rond DARWIN | Tsjok's blog

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