PRIMATEN IN GEVAAR


Artikels over primaten  http://eoswetenschap.eu/topics/Primaat

Klik hier om een link te hebben waarmee u dit artikel later terug kunt lezen.UITSTERVINGSGOLF     http://www.bloggen.be/evodisku/archief.php?ID=95

 2012

25 meest bedreigde primaten

 15 oktober 2012 2

De wereld telt zo’n 633 verschillende soorten primaten en zeker 54 procent daarvan wordt met uitsterven bedreigd. In een nieuw rapport presenteren onderzoekers de 25 meest bedreigde primaten waarvan we – als er niet snel iets veranderd – binnenkort voorgoed afscheid moeten nemen.

De 25 ernstig bedreigde primaten leven in verschillende delen van de wereld. Negen ervan treffen we aan in Azië, Madagaskar telt er zes, Afrika vijf. In het Neotropisch gebied (Zuid-Amerika, Midden-Amerika, Caribisch Gebied en het zuidelijke puntje van Florida) zijn vijf bedreigde soorten primaten terug te vinden.

De noordelijke wezelmaki. Tekening: Conservation International / Stephen Nash.

Noordelijke wezelmaki  (Lepilemur septentrionalis)

Eén van de primaten die we op de lijst terugvinden, is de noordelijke wezelmaki. Het dier gaat de boeken in als de meest bedreigde lemuur van dit moment. Voor zover bekend zijn er nog maar negentien noordelijke wezelmaki’s in het wild terug te vinden.

En niet alleen met deze soort gaat het slecht: zo’n 91 procent van de 103 soorten lemuren dreigt te verdwijnen.

Indri

http://diertjevandedag.classy.be/zoogdieren/primaten/halfapen/indriachtigen/familie_indriachtigen.htm

 indriachtigen

  • De indri of babakoto is de grootste nog levende halfaap. Hij komt enkel voor in het noordoosten van Madagaskar. Wikipedia     Meer afbeeldingen <—

De indriachtigen zijn een familie halfapen waarvan de indri, de wolmaki en de sifaka de belangrijkste zijn.  Deze dieren komen alleen voor op Madagaskar.  Dat is een groot eiland voor de kust van Afrika.  Het zijn dieren die hoog in de bomen leven en niet gauw op de grond komen, zelfs niet om te drinken.  In de droge bossen van het eiland leven ze van bladeren, knoppen, vruchten, noten en bloemen. 

Hun gezicht is niet behaard en zwart van kleur.  De achterpoten zijn sterk waarmee ze van tak naar tak kunnen springen.  Op de grond huppelen ze recht vooruit met hun voorpoten uitgestoken.  Ze leven in kleine groepen dieren en kunnen veel lawaai maken als een andere groep te dichtbij komt.  De vrouwtjes zijn groter dan de mannetjes en krijgen één jong per jaar die ze eerst op hun buik, daarna op hun rug dragen. 

Het zijn bedreigde dieren omdat vele bossen en wouden worden gekapt waar de kleine groepen in leven.  Boeren kappen de bossen om er akkers van te maken en het hout te verkopen.

  sifaka

3 geslachten en soorten indriachtigen :

indri’s

                                                                                    sifaka’s                   wolmaki’s
  • Perriers sifaka
  • goudkroonsifaka
  • Milne-Edwards sifaka
  • Verreaux’ sifaka
  • Coquerels kroonsifaka
  • oostelijk wolmaki
  • westelijke wolmaki

 

    • De indriachtigen behoren tot een familie van lemuren. Tot deze familie behoort de grootste nog levende halfaap, de indri, evenals de wolmaki’s en de sifaka’s. Indriachtigen komen enkel voor op het eiland Madagaskar. Wikipedia

Op de lijst vinden we ook het dwergspookdier terug. Maar niet alleen de kleinere primaten lopen gevaar.

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Op de lijst zijn ook enkele grotere exemplaren te vinden. De Oostelijke laaglandgorilla bijvoorbeeld.

En de indri en varkensstaartlangoer.(Simias concolor)
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Simakobu (Simias concolor).

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varkensstaartlangoer

Ontbossing
De grootste gevaren waar deze primaten mee te maken krijgen, zijn ontbossing en de jacht op de dieren. Sommige primaten worden gevangen voor hun vlees. Anderen weer om illegaal door te worden verkocht. “Dit rapport laat zien dat ‘s werelds primaten steeds sterker bedreigd worden door menselijke activiteiten,” concludeert onderzoeker Christoph Schwitzer. “Hoewel we in deze eeuw nog geen soorten primaten verloren zijn, zitten enkelen in zeer zwaar weer.” Vooral over de lemuren maken de onderzoekers zich zorgen. Het thuisland van de lemuren – Madagaskar – doet volgens de wetenschappers te weinig om ze te beschermen.

Ook bedreigd

Op een lijst met 25 plaatsen passen natuurlijk maar 25 bedreigde dieren. Maar er zijn er veel meer, zo benadrukken de onderzoekers. Primaten die de top 25 net niet haalden, maar eigenlijk net zo ernstig worden bedreigd zijn onder meer de pas ontdekte Rhinopithecus strykeri – u weet wel: de aap met de bijzondere neus) en de Cross Rivergorilla.

Cruciale rol
Dat het zo slecht gaat met de primaten is onvergefelijk, vinden de onderzoekers. “Primaten spelen een cruciale rol in hun omgeving,” vertelt onderzoeker Russell Mittermeier. “Ze doen vaak dienst als verspreiders van zaden en helpen de diversiteit in het bos te behouden.” En die bossen en hun diversiteit zijn weer belangrijk voor ons mensen. “We moeten steeds meer erkennen dat bossen een enorme bijdrage leveren aan ons ecosysteem: ze voorzien ons van drinkwater, voedsel en medicijnen.”

Is er in dit zwartgallige rapport dan ook nog goed nieuws aan te treffen? De echte optimist kan in het rapport inderdaad wel iets goeds terug vinden. Er zijn namelijk ook enkele primaten van de lijst – die elke twee jaar wordt opgesteld – verdwenen. De baardaap bijvoorbeeld. En ook de breedsnuithalfmaki. Maatregelen die werden getroffen om deze soorten te beschermen, hebben hun vruchten afgeworpen: hun aantal neemt toe en de dreiging neemt iets af.

Bronmateriaal:
Primates in peril – conservationists reveal the world’s 25 most endangered primates” – IUCN.org
De tekeningen bovenaan dit artikel zijn gemaakt door Conservation International / Stephen Nash.

08-08-2008

Bedreigde mensapen

8918180-primates-10

Cross River Gorilla /Nigeria, Cameroon

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Zeldzaamste mensaap stiekem gefilmd

Geschreven op 09 mei 2012 om 09:44 uur door 

Beeldmateriaal van de Cross River Gorilla is nog schaarser dan de gorilla zelf. En dus zijn deze nieuwe beelden van de soort heel bijzonder.

Wereldwijd zijn er nog maar 250 exemplaren van terug te vinden: de Cross River Gorilla. Slechts zelden laten de dieren zich aan mensen zien en dus is ook het beeldmateriaal schaars. Zeker het beeldmateriaal dat de gorilla’s in hun eigen omgeving terwijl ze op hun gemak zijn, laat zien.

Acht
Maar nu kunnen we een prachtig filmpje aan dat schaarse beeldmateriaal toevoegen. Het filmpje is gemaakt door verdekt opgestelde camera’s in een beschermd gebied in Kameroen. Zodra onderzoekers de beelden terugkeken, konden ze hun geluk niet op. Op de foto zijn maar liefst acht Cross River Gorilla’s te zien die op hun gemakje door het bos wandelen.

Slaan
Het hoogtepunt van de video is zonder enige twijfel het moment waarop één van de gorilla’s zich op de borst begint te slaan. Wie goed oplet, ziet tussen de acht gorilla’s ook een gorilla lopen die een arm lijkt te missen. Mogelijk is hij met zijn arm een keer in een strik blijven hangen en deze vervolgens kwijtgeraakt.

“De video is het beste beeldmateriaal dat tot op heden van de Cross River Gorilla’s is gemaakt,” stelt Christopher Jameson namens de Wildlife Conservation Society, de maker van de video. Hij benadrukt dat de gorilla’s heel schuw zijn en normaal gesproken vluchten zodra ze mensen zien. “Dit beeldmateriaal geeft ons een glimp van hoe de gorilla’s zich normaal gesproken in hun eigen omgeving gedragen.”

Bronmateriaal:
Video Captures Hidden World of Elusive Apes” – WCS.org
De foto bovenaan dit artikel is gemaakt door Julielangford / http://www.limbewildlife.org (via Wikimedia Commons).

8917570-primates-01

Sumatra Orang oetang

Mensapen zijn bovendien   intelligent  zoals  de Orang duidelijk aantoont  ….maar toch

ororang1
orfang-2

zwem

http://apeconservationeffort.blogspot.be/2007/10/primates-in-peril.html

MALE-ORANG-BRISTOL

041208-chimp-vlg-3p.widec

Ken Bohn / AP / bonobo, pygmee chimpansee

GIBBON
Javaanse-gibbon
 <klik vergroting

Javaanse Gibbon; Zilver Gibbon
Hylobates molochjavan-gibbon

OP APENGATEN

Het gaat slecht met het bewaren van de primaten , met onze erfenis en het beschermen van onze naaste verwanten
En dat is niet van vandaag bekend , maar het is nu wel vijf voor twaalf( en voor sommigen al erover )

De teruggang van het bestand aan apen is namelijk al jaren aan de gang.
Er sterven bovendien al wel altijd ergens planten en dieren soorten uit___om steeds weer complexere sets van interagerende redenen.

Waaronder o.a. ook de verwoestende invloed van de steeds groeiende menselijke ecologische voetafdruk ,vervuiling ,oorlogen ,
uitputting van natuurlijke buffers , toenemende bevolkings-expansie en uiteindelijke allemaal  tengevolge van menselijke  overbevolking ;

(enkele voorbeelden) :
– Het uitbreken van ziekten (waaronder enkele afkomstig of gemeenschappelijk van en met de mens )
– In vele streken worden bepaalde apensoorten tot en met het laatste exemplaar opgegeten door nieuwe invasieve predatoren ook door de hongerige mens ( die deed het al met Noorse Reuzenalk en(waarschijnlijk) de dodo en   (dat  gebeurde ook  al  in de prehistorie  ? )maar
ook door snobs en kapitaal krachtiger fijnproevers ( = Bushmeat restaurants ) van exotische of zeldzame delicatessen
– Het vergiftigen en uitroeien van voedselconcurenten —-> schadelijke ” onkruid-dieren ” en/of lanbouwgewassen en plantage-vruchten dieven
– Het verdwijnen van biotopen en de degradatie van arealen .
– de introductie van exoten ( bijvoorbeeld de nijlbaars in de oostafrikaanse meren is de oorzaak van  cichliden achteruitgang  )
Zo gaat dat.
Ook voor ons komt eens de dag …
En we vergeten maar  al te vlug dat wij tenslotte ook behoren tot de kwetsbare groep der primaten
Niettegenstaande hun opportunistische karakter, zijn alle primaten wel degelijk afhankelijk van een welbepaald millieu waarvan de grenzen niet ongestraft kunnen worden overschreden zonder uiterst nare en enge gevolgen …

De International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), een internationaal samenwerkingsverband dat zich ondermeer bezighoudt met het behoud van dierensoorten, luidt de noodklok.

Op de Rode Lijst van de IUCN, die in 1963 voor het eerst werd opgestart , blijkt dat de organisatie zich het meest druk maakt om de leefgebieden van zeldzame dieren.

Bosbranden en het kappen van tropische regenwouden beperken de leefomgeving van veel diersoorten aanzienlijk
Uit het groot onderzoek van de Union blijkt dat de situatie voor 48 procent van de bedreigde primaten soorten uiterst nijpend is..
Het rapport is een samenvatting van het werk van honderden wetenschappers en de eerste omvangrijke studie in meer dan vijf jaar. De cijfers hangen een somber beeld op van de toekomst van de apen overal ter wereld.
Volgens de jongste schattingen( in 2008) wordt bijna de helft van de primatensoorten wereldwijd met uitsterven bedreigd.
Van de 634 (bekende )  extante primatenrassen staan er immers 303 omschreven als ‘in gevaar’ of ‘met uitsterven bedreigd’ op de rode lijst van bedreigde diersoorten

Meestal is dit het duidelijkst wat betreft  lokale soorten waarvan het leefgebied wordt vernietigd of versnipperd.
Maar het drama voltrekt zich echter in alle regio’s waar deze dieren leven

Andere bedreigingen voor aapachtigen zijn jagers en de mensen die apenvlees consumeren.
Vooral dat laatste lijkt de afgelopen jaren een trend in diverse landen, zo meldt de organisatie.

“We slaan al jaren alarm dat primaten in gevaar zijn, maar nu hebben we harde gegevens die bewijzen dat de situatie nog veel erger is dan we dachten”, zegt Russell A. Mittermeier van Conservation International (CI).
Het verdwijnen van tropische wouden is altijd het grootste probleem geweest, maar nu blijkt ook dat de jacht in sommige, nog intacte gebieden een ernstige bedreiging vormt.”

Nu al is volgens het WNF 70 procent van het leefgebied van de apen aangetast.
Jaarlijks wordt er nog eens 5 procent verwoest in Azië en 2 procent in Afrika.
Ook beschermde gebieden ontkomen daar niet aan.
Uit een steekproef in 24 dergelijke natuurparken ter wereld blijkt dat de primatenpopulatie er met 96 procent achteruitgaat.

“Het was heel schokkend om dat vast te stellen“, zegt Folgering.
“Apen zijn gewoon heel kwetsbaar.”

Maar de dramatische situatie van de apensoorten is  toch vooral een indicatie dat hele ecosystemen worden vernietigd.

Primatoloog  Bert de Boer
‘Het is niet alleen een kwestie van zielige aapjes, hoezeer dat ook tot de verbeelding spreekt.
Een soort kun je misschien wel missen, maar hele ecosystemen niet’

Dat is momenteel het duidelijkst te zien  in  Azië
daar  hebben inmiddels 70 procent van de aapsoorten het stempel ‘bedreigde diersoort’ gekregen.
De BBC  maakte aan de hand van de Rode Lijst een top 5 van landen waar het percentage van bedreigde dier en apensoorten het hoogst is:   de koplopers komen allen uit azie :

Grey-shanked douc langur, Pygathrix cinerea,Asia 1 Yellow cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae)  2 Javan Gibbon, Hylobates moloch, EN, Indonesia 6

Qinling golden snub-nosed monkey, Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis  3 Kirk's Red Colobus, Procolobus kirkii 4 

gibbon-121822c
Gibbon :   Nomascus gabriellae uit  Cambodja    CI/Sterling Zumbrunn
Kolonies van gibbons en langoeren in vietnam en cambodja gaan er ten onder aan de houtkap
en aan stroperij om te voldoen aan de Chinese vraag naar traditionele geneesmiddelen en huisdieren. Cambodia – 90 procent
Vietnam – 86 procentIndonesië – 84 procent
Laos – 83 procent
China – 79 procent

29/08/08   / Grote kolonies bedreigde apen gevonden in Cambodja

 

Een geelwangkuifgibbon.

Onderzoekers hebben in de jungle van Cambodja grote populaties bedreigde apensoorten ontdekt. Dat heeft de Amerikaanse organisatie Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) bekendgemaakt.

De wetenschappers vonden twee soorten slankapen en gibbons tijdens een veldonderzoek in een afgelegen stuk oerwoud bij de grens met Vietnam . Ze telden ongeveer 42.000 slankapen en circa 2.500 geelwangkuifgibbons.

Daarmee gaat het om de( met afstand) grootste populaties van deze soorten op aarde

Tot voor kort gingen onderzoekers er vanuit dat Vietnam beschikte over de grootste aantallen. In dit land leven naar schatting zeshonderd slankapen en tweehonderd gibbons van de betreffende soorten.

Het is de tweede keer in korte tijd dat er  dergelijk  nieuws te melden valt over bedreigde apensoorten.
Begin deze maand bleek de laagland-gorillapopulatie in de Democratische Republiek Congo twee keer zo groot als aanvankelijk werd aangenomen.

Maar ondanks deze  opstekers ,blijven het  wel  bedroevend lage  aantallen om de vermelde  soorten  probleemloos verder blijvend   te kunnen  behouden …..
(dpa/sam)

New Gibbon Species Discovered | Primatology.net

 

http://primatology.net/2010/09/22/new-gibbon-species-discovered/

 

The northern buffed-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus annamensis) live in the rainforests of Annamite Mountains, situated around Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The northern buffed-cheeked gibbons were once thought to be the yellow-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) but vocalization and genetic research prove that both are distinct species.

 

 

The northern buffed-cheeked gibbon males (left) have a black pelt that shimmers silver in sunlight. The chest is brownish in color and the cheeks are deep orange-golden. The crest is very prominent in males. Females (right) are orange-beige in color and lack the characteristic crest. Photo by Tilo Nadler, Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Vietnam.
Comparison between the northern buffed-cheeked gibbon male (left) and the yellow-cheeked gibbon male (right). Photo of the yellow-cheeked gibbon from The Gibbon Network.
Comparison between the northern buffed-cheeked gibbon female (left) and the yellow-cheeked gibbon female (right). Photo of the yellow-cheeked gibbon from The Gibbon Network.

 

499w
< klik    (vietnam) Cat Ba Island 
Golden Headed Langur.
dit dier kwam < ook in india voor maar is daar bijna totaal verdwenen

 <link

Delacour’s Langur   Photo: Tilo Nadler

sri-lanka-loris
Horton Plains slender loris.
“Wat er in Zuidoost-Azië gebeurt, is angstaanjagend“, zegt Jean-Christophe Vié, hoofd van het soortenprogramma van de IUCN.
“Een groep dieren waarvan zo’n hoog percentage bedreigd is, dat hebben we nog bij geen enkele andere soortengroepen  vastgesteld.”
De precaire situatie in Azië wordt mee in de hand gewerkt door de vraag uit China om apen te gebruiken voor medicijnen of als huisdier.
 3CA45B25-C838-7990-4601BB1B7CE146D7-3
Ook al op de lijst der bedreigde primaten in azie : de NEUSAAP

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Ook in   AFRIKA  hebben primaten het moeilijk om te overleven.
Zo zijn elf van de dertien soorten rode franjeapen geclassificeerd als (ernstig) bedreigd.
Twee zijn er mogelijk al uitgestorven.

De bouvier is al in geen 25 jaar meer waargenomen.
De Miss Waldron hebben primatologen sinds 1978 niet meer gezien, maar af en toe duikt er een bericht op dat er nog enkele van deze franjeapen in leven zijn.

red-colobus-monkey  red_colobus_monkey.(miss waldron monkey )

Procolobus

Roloway-dianaRoloway diana.  http://eol.org/pages/1657


Roloway Guenon
Cercocebus diana roloway


Tana River Red Colobus
Procolobus rufomitratus


Niger Delta Red Colobus Monkey
Procolobus epieni


Kipunji
Rungwecebus kipunji

“Van de Afrikaanse soorten staan altijd de grote apen in de belangstelling, zoals gorilla’sen bonobo’s”,
zegt voorzitter Richard Wrangham van de International Primatological Society.
“Hoewel ook zij ernstig bedreigd zijn, zijn het de kleinere soorten, zoals de franjeapen, die het eerst kunnen uitsterven.”

Ook de jacht op bushmeat ( gorilla en chimp zijn zelfs lekkernijen ) en de illegale dierenhandel eisen hun tol.

071026nipprimates-3

De laagland  gorilla
In de Democratische Republiek Congo  leven volgens de laatste telling zeker 125.000 laagland gorilla’s.
De onderzoekers telden nesten van gorilla’s om te bepalen hoeveel dieren er in Congo leven.
Deze soort komt het meest voor, maar is toch ernstig bedreigd door de snelheid waarmee de populatie krimpt.Volgens de oude schattingen leefden er maximaal 50.000 gorilla’s in Congo.
De populatie zou ernstig te lijden hebben onder illegale jacht en ziekten waaronder ebola .
Een flinke drom gorilla’s blijkt het nu in het noorden van het land overleefd te hebben.
Dat heeft de Wildlife Conservation Society bekend gemaakt op een congres over primaten in het Schotse Edinburgh

Maar primatoloog  Bert de Boer, bioloog en directeur van dierenpark De Apenheul in Apeldoorn,nuanceerde de gegevens  .
Volgens De Boer zijn cijfers over grote primaten in uitgestrekte en ontoegankelijke oerwoudgebieden notoir onbetrouwbaar.

‘Een vorm van schijnzekerheid waar het publiek gemakkelijk verkeerde conclusies aan verbindt.’


Order: Primates /  Infraorder: Catarrhini/ Family: Hominidae /Species: Gorilla gorilla

Subspecies:
G. g. gorilla (western lowland)
G. g. diehli (Cross River)

Species: Gorilla beringei

Subspecies:
G. b. beringei
 (mountain)
G. b. graueri (eastern lowland)

Some primatologists list one additional subspecies of mountain gorilla, and are proposing to separate the Bwindi population into a fifth gorilla subspecies.

Shy vegetarians, the world’s largest primates face an uncertain future in Africa’s remaining equatorial forests.
Gorilla of different subspecies vary in coat length, hair color, and jaw and teeth size. Individuals vary, but many western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla)—the subspecies to which the Zoo’s gorillas belong—have brownish-gray coats, unlike the often blackish coats of the mountain (G. b. beringei) and eastern lowland (G. b. graueri) gorillas.
Generally, the mountain gorilla has longer hair than the other subspecies.
Western lowland gorillas have a more pronounced brow ridge, and ears that appear small in relation to their heads. They also have a different shaped nose and lip. Adult male gorillas’ heads look conical due to the large bony crests on the top (sagittal) and back (nuchal) of the skull. These crests anchor the massive muscles used to support and operate their large jaws and teeth. Adult female gorillas also have these crests, but they are much less pronounced. In comparison to the mountain gorilla, the western lowland gorilla has a wider and larger skull and the big toe of the western lowland gorilla is spread apart more from the alignment of his other four toes.
Like all great apes, gorillas’ arms are longer than their legs. When they move quadrupedally, they knuckle-walk, supporting their weight on the third and fourth digits of their curled hands. Like other primates each individual has distinctive fingerprints.
Lowland gorilla hair is short, soft, and very fine. There is no under fur (a thick layer of insulating hair close to the skin, such as on dogs or minks). Lowland gorillas’ coats are suited for warm, moist forest habitats. Mountain gorillas are more shaggy and thick-furred due to the colder temperatures at high altitudes.
Size
The eastern lowland gorilla is the largest. Adult male gorillas have silvery white “saddles” that inspired the name “silverback” for these animals.
On two legs, adult male gorillas stand about five a half feet tall (rarely a bit taller). They weigh between 300 and 400 pounds. Females are smaller, standing up to five feet tall and averaging about 200 pounds. Zoo animals are often heavier.
Geographic Distribution
Western lowland gorillas live in lowland tropical forests in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Angola, and Nigeria.
Eastern lowland gorillas, also called Grauer’s gorillas, live in tropical forests from low elevations up to 8,000 feet in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) and along the border with Uganda and Rwanda.
Mountain gorillas, the rarest of the subspecies, hang on in mountain forests (up to 11,000 feet) at the borders of Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Status
Western lowland and Cross River gorillas are listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eastern lowland and mountain gorillas are listed as endangered on the Red List.
Habitat
Gorillas live in moist tropical forests, often in secondary, or re-growing, forests or along forest edges, where clearings provide an abundance of low, edible vegetation. Mountain gorillas range up into cloud forest.
Diet in the Wild
Gorillas are primarily herbivorous, eating the leaves and stems of herbs, shrubs, and vines. In some areas, they raid farms, eating and trampling crops. They also will eat rotten wood and small animals.

The diet of western lowland gorillas also includes the fleshy fruits of close to a hundred seasonally fruiting tree species; the diets of other gorilla subspecies include proportionally less fruit. Gorillas get some protein from invertebrates found on leaves and fruits. Adult male gorillas eat about 45 pounds (20 kg) of food per day. Females eat about two-thirds of that amount.
Reproduction
Female gorillas reach maturity at seven or eight years old, but they usually don’t breed until ten years or older.
Due to competition between males for access to females, few wild males breed before they reach 15 years old. Eight and a half months after mating, a female gives birth to one young, which can usually walk within three to six months. Young are usually weaned by three years old, and females can give birth every four years.
Upon reaching sexual maturity, between ages seven and ten, young gorillas strike out on their own, seeking new groups or mates. Zoo gorillas may reach sexual maturity before seven years old, and may have young every two to three years.
Life Span
Gorillas may live about 35 years in the wild, and up to 54 in zoos.
Behavior
Gorillas live in groups. Each group usually contains one or more silverbacks and two to ten females and young. Newly established silverbacks may kill young not sired by them, but otherwise, gorilla family life is mostly peaceful. Bloody battles sometimes occur between silverbacks when they square off to compete over female groups or home ranges. Gorillas spend their mornings and evenings feeding, usually covering only a small area of forest at a time. Groups spend the middle of the day sleeping, playing, or grooming (females groom their young or a silverback). At night, gorillas fashion nests of leaves and branches on which to sleep; unweaned infants sleep in their mothers’ nests.
Social Structure
Gorillas are behaviorally flexible. This means that their behavior and social structure is not set in stone; there is great variety. The information below should only be used as a general guide.
Gorillas live in groups, or troops, from two to more than 30 members. Western lowland data seem to indicate smaller group sizes, averaging about five individuals. Groups are generally composed of a silverback male, one or more black back males, several adult females, and their infant and juvenile offspring. This group composition varies greatly due to births and deaths and to the immigration and emigration of individuals.
Mature offspring typically leave their natal group to find a mate. At about eight years old, females generally emigrate into a new group of her choosing. She seems to choose which silverback to join based on such attributes as size and quality of his home range, etc. This seems to be related to the silverback’s size, but not always. A female may change family groups a number of times throughout her life. When leaving their natal group, some sexually mature males may attempt to replace the silverback in an already established group. However, they usually spend a few years as solitary males. Nevertheless, a new troop can be easily formed when one or more non-related females join a lone male.
The group is led by the adult, dominant, silverback male. He has exclusive breeding rights to the females. At times he may allow other sub-adult males in the group to mate with females. The silverback mediates disputes and also determines the group’s home range. He regulates what time they wake up, eat and go to sleep.
Gorillas are most active in the morning and late afternoon. They wake up just after sunrise to search for food, and then eat for several hours. Midday, adults take a siesta and usually nap in a day nest while the young wrestle and play games. After their midday nap they forage again. Before dusk each gorilla makes its own nest, infants nest with their mothers.
All gorillas over three years make nests, day nests for resting and night nests for sleeping. Infants share their mothers’ nests. Gorillas form nests by sitting in one place and pulling down and tucking branches, leaves, or other vegetation around themselves. Adult males usually nest on the ground. Females may nest on the ground or in trees. Juveniles are more apt to nest in trees. Studies of western lowland gorillas have shown that the number of nests found at a site does not necessarily coincide with the number of weaned animals observed in a group.
The western lowland gorilla is characterized as a quiet, peaceful, and non-aggressive animal. They never attack unless provoked. However, males do fight over acquisition and defense of females, and the new leader of a group may kill unrelated infants. This causes the females to begin cycling sooner. An adult male protecting his group may attempt to intimidate his aggressor by standing on his legs and slapping its chest with cupped or flat hands while roaring and screaming. If this elaborate display is unsuccessful and the intruder persists, the male may rear his head back violently several times. He may also drop on all fours and charge toward the intruder. In general, when they charge they do not hit the intruder. Instead, they merely pass them by. This demonstration of aggression maintains order among separate troops and reduces the possibility of injury. It is thought that size plays an important role in determining the winner of an encounter between males (the larger male wins). Because of gorilla variability, some or all of these behaviors may not be seen.
Gorillas exhibit complex and dynamic relationships. They interact using grooming behaviors, although less than most other primates. Also affiliation may be shown by physical proximity.
Young gorillas play often and are more arboreal than the large adults. Adults, even the silverback, tolerate infant play behavior. He also tolerates, to a lesser extent, and often participates in the play of older juveniles and black back males.
The duration and frequency of sexual activity in gorillas are low in comparison to other great apes. The silverback has exclusive mating rights with the adult females in his group. The reproductive success of males depends upon the maintenance of exclusive rights to adult females. The female chooses to mate with the silverback by emigrating into his family group. Normally quiet animals, some gorillas are unusually loud during copulation.
Communication
Gorillas communicate using auditory signals (vocalizations), visual signals (gestures, body postures, facial expressions), and olfactory signals (odors). They are generally quiet animals, grunting and belching, but they may also scream, bark, and roar. Dian Fossey heard 17 different kinds of sounds from mountain gorillas. Other scientists have heard 22 different vocalizations, each seeming to have its own meaning. Gorillas crouch low and approach from the side when they are being submissive. They walk directly when confident and stand, chest beat (actually they slap with open hands), and advance when being aggressive.
Past/Present/Future
Until several decades ago, gorilla populations enjoyed the seclusion of vast tracts of forest. Today, Africa’s growing population puts many pressures on these declining primates. Logging roads snake into forests, opening frontiers to settlers and loggers, while hunters kill or capture gorillas for their meat, parts (sometimes sold as souvenirs), or because the animals raid farm fields. Gorilla meat is eaten by hunters and loggers, and is also sold in city markets and restaurants.
While protection laws exist in most countries still inhabited by gorillas, enforcement is often lacking. Civil wars in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo have harmed conservation efforts in these countries and opened parks to poachers. Gorillas also stumble into snares set for other animals, and may be killed or injured. Increased political stability, better public awareness, and carefully protected parks would go a long way toward reversing the gorillas’ decline.
Outbreaks of the Ebola virus and increased hunting led the IUCN to move the western lowland gorilla from endangered to critically endangered status in 2007. In August 2008, the Wildlife Conservation Society released a census showing that more than 125,000 western lowland gorillas are living in two adjacent areas of the northern part of the Republic of Congo. Previously, it was thought there could be fewer than 50,000 of these gorillas.
With a population of fewer than 300 individuals, Cross River gorillas are listed as critically endangered.


Adolescent mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) 7 

http://www.seniorennet.be/Dossier/Natuurbehoud/gorillas_soorten.php

osteo6 Chimpansees soorten 
osteo6 Gorilla’s
osteo6 
Biologie
   osteo6 Bedreigingen
   osteo6 Het werk van WWF 
osteo6
 Neushoorns

VIDEO
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b0YEBkVIFi0

Gorilla’s : soorten

Er bestaan twee afzonderlijke soorten gorilla’s, die nog eens zijn onderverdeeld in vier ondersoorten:

De berggorilla  

BerggorillaLatijnse naam: Gorilla beringei beringei

Status: Met uitsterven bedreigd   update –>berggorilla’s (Tsjok45)

Habitat

De bossen op de flanken van de vulkanen van het Nationaal Park van Virunga (op de grens met de Democratische Republiek Congo) en van Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park in het zuid-westen van Ouganda.
Meer info : Het Nationaal Park Virunga

071026nipprimates-2

 

Uiterlijk     Hij heeft een zwarte vacht, de volwassen mannetjes hebben een witte strook op hun rug en worden zilverrug genoemd.

Populatie    Er zijn op dit moment naar schatting zo’n 700 berggorilla’s in leven. Omdat zij voorkomen in een gebied dat ernstig verstoord wordt door de burgeroorlog, is het moeilijk om de dieren te beschermen.

Het relaas van een ontmoeting met een gorilla: Lessen in bescheidenheid

DE OOSTELIJKE LAAGLANDGORILLA of gorilla van Grauer

Oostelijke laaglandgorillaLatijnse naam:   Gorilla beringei graueri

Status: Ernstig met uitsterven bedreigd

Habitat :   De vlakten en het hoogland van het middengebergte in het oosten van de Democratische Republiek Congo.

Uiterlijk :   Hij heeft een zwarte vacht zoals de berggorilla, maar verschilt van hem door de kortere beharing, de tanden en de langere armen

Populatie :  Ongeveer 3.000 individuen.

DE WESTELIJKE LAAGLANDGORILLA

Westelijke laaglandgorillaLatijnse naam: Gorilla gorilla gorilla

Status: Met uitsterven bedreigd

Habitat:   Een heel groot territorium dat zich uitstrekt over de grote bossen in het laagland vanCentraal Afrika. De meerderheid van de dieren zou in de wouden van Gabon leven.

Uiterlijk:    De westelijke laaglandgorilla heeft een bruin-grijze vacht met een rode of roodbruine kruin. De volwassen mannetjes hebben meestal eenwitte strook van hun rug tot hun middel.

Populatie:  Ongeveer 94.500 individuen.§ zie hierboven voor andere cyfers )

DE “Cross River” GORILLA


Cross River Gorilla

Latijnse naam : Gorilla gorilla diehli

Status : Ernstig met uitstreven bedreigd

Habitat : De laatste bossen in het zuid-oosten van Nigeria en in het westen van Kameroen.

Uiterlijk :   Deze ondersoort heeft dezelfde vacht als zijn neef uit het laagland ((bruingrijs met rode of roodbruine kruin), )en verschilt alleen door de grootte van de schedel en de tanden.

Populatie : 250 tot 280 individuen.

Bron: WWF
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

African-golden-monkey

Een streekgenoot van de berggorilla 

MADAGASCAR
De situatie in het enige  thuisland  van de  lemuren /halfapen   is uiterst  precair  voor het voorbestaan van vele verschillende unieke  soorten( niet alleen maar primaten )
lemurs-2012
Madagascar  is en was  een  biodiversiteit -hotspot  met  unieke fauna en flora  .
Er is sprake van een ver doorgedreven ontbossing   en  ook  de   halfapen  zijn nog steeds  slachtoffer van jacht en stroperij
http://www.amnh.org/sciencebulletins/bio/s/primates.20050711/Op de lijst  staan  de bijna uitgestorven  :
Prolemur simus.
Eulemur albocollarisPropithecus perrieri
Propithecus perrieri
Propithecus perrieri
Photo: Matthew Banks silky-sifaka-107483 sifakawade-600Dancing sifaka // Richard dawkins’s favoriete dierPropithecus candidus
   Behalve dat de mens met zijn destructieve gedrag moet stoppen, zijn er volgens Folgering nog mogelijkheden om de primaten te redden.“Je kunt overheden overtuigen van het belang van ecotoerisme. In Rwanda betalen bezoekers nu al 500 dollar om berggorilla’s te zien. Zo komt er geld in het laatje om de natuur in stand te houden en creëer je een draagvalk onder de bevolking om respect op te brengen voor hun omgeving.”

Hier en daar zijn er al kleine successen behaald.
In Brazilië zijn het roodstuitleeuwaapje, het zwarte leeuwaapje  en het gouden leeuwaapje in de rode lijst opgeklommen van kritiek  naar bedreigd. *
Dat is het resultaat van dertig jaar inspanningen voor natuurbehoud.
De dieren zijn   nu goed beschermd, maar ze lijden nog steeds  onder een te kleine habitat.
Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) 5  leeuwaapje

     
http://www.wildlifetrust.org/news/2005/0501a_tamarin.htm

BLT1


zwartkop tamarin

Map-sm

*

*

“Als je wouden hebt, kun je de primaten beschermen”,
zegt wetenschapper Anthony Rylands van de IUCN.
“Het werk met de leeuwaapjes in Brazilië toont aan dat het broodnodig is om gefragmenteerde wouden te beschermen en ze met elkaar te verbinden via groencorridors. Dat is niet alleen levensnoodzakelijk voor de primaten, maar ook voor een gezond ecosysteem, de watervoorziening, en de strijd tegen de klimaatverandering.”

Folgering:
“Het is nog altijd de moeite om te vechten.
Voor veel populaties is de toestand kritiek, maar opgeven doen we niet.”

De drie  categorieën:  “kwetsbaar”, “bedreigd” en  “ernstig bedreigd”.

*“bedreigd”,
Soorten komen in die categorie terecht omdat ze
-zeldzaam zijn,
-snel in aantal verminderen
-en in een klein gebied voorkomen.

http://primates.squarespace.com/storage/PDF/Primates.in.Peril.2008-2010.pdf


Rondo Dwarf Galago
Galagoides rondoensisGalago


Javan Slow Loris
Nycticebus javanicus


Siau Island Tarsier
Tarsius tumpara

Indonesian-Tarsiers

Indonesian tarsiers

Artwork from: Endangered Primate Rescue Center
Cuc Phuong National Park, Nho Quan District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam
Full size artwork, distribution maps, and more info at EPRC Website



Grey-Shanked Douc
Pygathrix cinerea

Pygathrix n. nigripes
Black-shanked Douc

Pygathrix nemaeus
Red-shanked Douc

 
Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey
Rhinopithecus avunculus

http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/959/Bizar/article/detail/1672360/2013/07/20/Britse-zoo-is-trots-op-Royal-Monkey.dhtml

Tonkin langoer baby

tonkinlangoer  baby ;   één van de zeldzaamste apen ter wereld en met uitsterven bedreigd. De geboorte van zo’n aapje met dan nog eens een speciale vacht, maakt het beestje extra bijzonder.

Trachypithecus f. poliocephalus
Tonkin Hooded Black Langur
Cat Ba Langur
Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus

Trachypithecus f. delacouri
White-rumped Black Langur
Delacour’s Langur
Trachypithecus delacouri

Trachypithecus laotum
White-browed Black Langur

Trachypithecus francoisi
Francois’ Langur or Leaf Monkey

Trachypithecus cristatus
Silvered Leaf-monkey or Langur

Trachypithecus phayrei
Phayre’s Langur or Leaf Monkey


Simakobu
Simias concolor


Western Purple-faced Langur
Semnopithecus vetulus nestor

HYLOBATES  

White-handed gibbon portrait

Scientific name: Hylobates lar     /Rank: Species      //  White-handed gibbon

Taxonomy
Order: Primates    Suborder: Haplorhini  Infraorder: Catarrhini   Family: Hylobatidae
The 12 species of gibbons are classified, referring to their size, as lesser apes. They exhibit many of the general characteristics of primates: flat faces, stereoscopic vision, enlarged brain size, grasping hands and feet, and opposable digits; and many specific characteristics of apes: broad chest, full shoulder rotation, no tail, and arms longer than legs.
Gibbons are relatively small, slender, and agile. They have fluffy, dense hair. They are not sexually dimorphic in size. Mature females usually weigh more than mature males. They have very long arms, which they use in a spectacular arm-swinging locomotion called brachiation. Their hands and fingers are also very long. The relatively short thumb is set well down on the palm, and their fingers form a hook, which is used during brachiation. Gibbons have very good bipedal locomotion, which they use on stable surfaces too large to grasp. When walking bipedally, arms are held up to keep from dragging and to assist with balance. Gibbons are sometimes observed putting their weight on their hands and swinging their legs through as if using crutches.
Gibbons do not build nests like the great apes. They sleep sitting up with their arms wrapped around their knees and their head tucked into their lap. They have ischial callosities (fleshy, nerveless pads attached to the hip bones, a characteristic otherwise found only in Old World monkeys).
Social Structure
Gibbons live in small, monogamous families composed of a mated pair and up to four offspring. Less than six percent of all primate species (more than 300) are considered monogamous.
Gibbons are one of the few apes where the adult female is the dominant animal in the group. The hierarchy places her female offspring next followed by the male offspring and finally by the adult male.
Gibbons are physically independent at about three, mature at about six, and usually leave the family group at about eight, though they may spend up to ten years in their family group.Communication
Gibbons are known for their beautiful song. Their loud vocalization can be heard up to one mile away and is used to announce location, defend territory, and maintain bonds with the family unit. The adult pair, sometimes joined by practicing juveniles, sing duets. Each individual can be identified by his or her song.
Siamangs have a louder call than white-cheked gibbons, amplified by a throat sac. Their call can be heard up to two miles away. Also used to defend territory, it includes more of a boom, bark, and a loud call increasing in speed as the call goes on, as compared to the chatter and calling of the other gibbon families.
Life span
Longevity in the wild is 25 to 30 years and can be as long as 40 years in captivity.
Conservation
All gibbons are endangered, largely due to deforestation. They are also hunted and trapped for the pet trade.http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Lar_Gibbon
The rainforest of Borneo habitat : rainforest 
northern white-cheeked gibbon

Nomascus leucogenys
northern white-cheeked gibbon
Photo credit: Bertrand L. Deputte

Nomascus leucogenys
northern white-cheeked gibbon
Photo credit: Alan Mootnick

northern white-cheeked gibbonhttp://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/image/32

Taxonomy
Genus and species: Nomascus leucogenys

Distribution and Habitat
White-cheeked gibbons are found in Laos, Vietnam, and southern China in evergreen tropical rainforests and monsoon forests.
Gibbons have a home range of about 75 to 100 acres (0.3 to 0.4 km2) and travel about one mile (1.6 km) per day through this range. They defend approximately three-quarters of their range as their group territory. Defense takes the form of calls from the center of the territory, calls from the boundaries, confrontations across the boundaries, chasing across the boundaries, and, rarely, physical contact between males. Gibbons are arboreal and spend most of their time in the canopy. They rarely stay on the ground for very long. Here at the Zoo the gibbons spend more time on the ground. You may see youngsters wrestling in the grass.

Nomascus leucogenys
northern white-cheeked gibbon
Photo credit: Bertrand L. Deputte

northern white-cheeked gibbon

Physical Description
White-cheeked gibbons are 18 to 25 inches (47 to 64 cm) tall and weigh about 15 to 20 pounds (7 to 9 kg). Our females are slightly heavier than males, which is not typical of gibbons in the wild. They exhibit sex- and age-linked color dimorphism. All infants are a beige color. By the time they are one to one and a half years old, their coat has become black with white cheek patches. At sexual maturity (five to seven years), males remain black and females become a beige color again. The external genitalia of males and females are remarkably similar, and the sex of an individual can be hard to determine without close examination. Both sexes have long, dagger-like canines.

Nomascus leucogenys
northern white-cheeked gibbon
Photo credit: Bertrand L. Deputte

northern white-cheeked gibbon

Social Structure
Like all gibbons, white-cheeked gibbons live in small, monogamous families composed of a mated pair and up to four offspring. They are physically independent at about three, mature at about six, and usually leave the family group at about eight, though they may spend up to ten years in their family group.
Gibbons are one of the few apes where the adult female is the dominant animal in the group. The hierarchy places her female offspring next followed by the male offspring and finally by the adult male.
Grooming is an important social activity between adults, between sub-adults, and between adults and young. Infant centered play behavior is another common social activity.
Communication
Vocalization (see gibbon communication information) is a major social investment. The basic pattern is an introductory sequence where both male and female “warm up,” followed by alternating sequences of male and female calls and of female great calls, usually with a male coda at the end. Calls are often accompanied by behavioral acrobatics.
Reproduction and Development
The menstrual cycle is 28 days, and the gestation period is seven months. White-cheeked gibbons give birth to a single offspring every two or three years. Infants cling to their mothers from birth. Newborns are often found clinging horizontally across the female’s abdomen. This allows the mothers to sit with their knees up as most gibbons do. Older infants orient vertically on the abdomen. Youngsters are weaned early in their second year. Once the offspring reach full maturity they usually leave the family group and search for a territory and mate of their own.
Diet in the Wild
White-cheeked gibbons eat mostly ripe fruits, leaves, and a small amount of invertebrates. Fruit eating occupies about 65 percent of feeding time and young leaf eating about 35 percent of feeding time. They move and feed mainly in the upper and middle levels of the canopy and almost never come down to the ground. Families often feed together in the trees.

buff-cheeked gibbon
Male & female Nomascus Gabriellae

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/list.php?sec=BASIC&qry=gibbon

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/list.php?qry=gibbon&p=16

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/list.php?qry=gibbon&p=32

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/list.php?qry=gibbon&p=48

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/list.php?qry=gibbon&p=64

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/list.php?qry=gibbon&p=80

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/list.php?qry=gibbon&p=96


Eastern Black Crested Gibbon
Nomascus nasutus


W. Hoolock Gibbon
Hoolock hoolock


Sumatran Orangutan
Pongo abelii

MALE-ORANG-BRISTOL
Orangutan
Order: Primates
Family: Pongidae
Genus and Species: Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean) and Pongo abelii (Sumatran)
The world’s largest tree-dwelling animal, the orangutan relies upon its intelligence and well-adapted body to survive in the tropical rainforest.
Physical Description

female borneo orang 

These orangish-red-haired great apes have long arms and curved hands and feet, which they put to good use when traversing the treetops. Older orangutans usually move through the trees on all fours, while young ones often brachiate, or swing hand over hand. Males have longer hair than females and disc-like cheek pads.
Both sexes have throat pouches that make their calls resonate through the forest. The males’ pouches are more developed. Orangutans crush tough foliage and hard-shelled nuts with their strong teeth and jaws. Two species exist: P. pygmaeus of Borneo, and the Sumatran species, P. abelii. Outside of their native ranges, they can be differentiated only through chromosomal or DNA analysis.
Size
Orangutans are Asia’s largest primates, and males are larger than females. Males stand about four and a half feet tall and weigh 130 to 200 pounds. Females stand about four feet tall and weigh 90 to 110 pounds. Zoo animals are often heavier.

Geographic Distribution
Once more widely distributed, orangutans now live only in forests on the Southeast Asian islands of Sumatra and Borneo.

june 2009 swimming orang

Status
The Sumatran species is listed as critically endangered and the Bornean species is listed as endangered on the World Conservation Union’s Red List of Threatened Animals.
Habitat
Orangutans live in tropical rainforests, including hill forests and swamp forests.

Natural Diet
Orangutans feed primarily on forest fruits, including durians, jackfruits, lychees, mangos, and figs. Leaves and shoots make up the remainder of their diet, supplemented occasionally by small animals, tree bark, and soils rich in minerals. Researchers have documented more than 400 different foods eaten by wild orangutans.
Reproduction
Male orangutans establish home ranges that embrace those of several females. Females reach maturity at around ten years of age and can remain fertile for more than 30 years. Recent research suggests that, on average, wild females give birth only every eight years. Young orangutans may nurse until age six, and stay close to their mothers until the next offspring comes along.
Life Span
Orangutans may live about 35 years in the wild, and up to 60 in zoos.
Behavior
Active during the day, orangutans spend much of their lives high in the trees. Solitary, they rarely encounter others of their kind unless sharing a fruiting tree or mating. Each night, orangutans bend branches into nest platforms that support the apes while they sleep in the trees.
Orangutans move slowly through the forest, seeking fruiting trees, which they may find by following the movements of hornbills and other fruit-eaters. When heavily fruiting trees are found, orangutans will spend many hours feeding.
Past/Present/Future
Once widespread in Asian tropical forests, orangutans now live only on Sumatra and Borneo, where forest loss is the greatest threat to their existence. Naturally occurring forest fires, and those set by farmers and large companies to clear the way for plantations of oil palm, fast-growing pulpwood, and other crops, devastate forests. The destruction spreads even further during dry years. In 1997, an area the size of New Jersey burned in Indonesia, and many of the fires occurred in orangutan habitat. Large reserves and strictly enforced wildlife protection laws are needed to keep orangutans safe from extinction

 

 

LEMUREN 

Photographs of lemurs in Madagascar


Cheirogaleus major
lemur
Indri lemur in Andasibe

White-footed lepilemur
(Lepilemur leucopus)


Ringtailed lemur
(Lemur catta) eating with baby on back


Sifaka lemur in “The Thinker” position


Ring-tailed lemurs paddycake


Ringtails on a mission

Black lemurs (Nosy Komba)
Black lemurs

Collared lemur (Eulemur fulvus collaris) (Ankarana)
Collared lemur


Mother lemur catta with
baby on chest
Red-fronted brown lemur
with baby on back at Kirindy
White ruffed lemur
feeding on tamarind


Red-fronted brown lemur
(E. fulvus rufus) in tree


Red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra)


White-fronted brown lemur


Greater Bamboo Lemur


Eulemur fulvus rufus
in tree at Kirindy
Microcebus rufus
(Brown mouse lemur)
Varecia variegata
variegata


Diademed sifaka in
Mantady NP


Milne-Edwards Sifaka

Grey Bamboo Lemur (Andasibe)
Grey Bamboo Lemur


Red-fronted brown lemur

Eulemur fulvus rufus

Excited ring-tailed lemur


Leaping lemur


Sifaka just hanging out


Upside-down sifaka lemur

MORE
LEMUR
PHOTOS

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘Veel lemuren met uitsterven bedreigd’

 13 juli 2012

– Het aantal soorten lemuren dat met uitsterven wordt bedreigd, is veel groter dan tot nu toe werd gedacht. Dat blijkt uit nieuw onderzoek naar deze primaten.

Dat schrijft de BBC. Een groep onderzoekers bestudeerde lemuren op Madagaskar, de enige plek waar deze dieren nog in het wild leven. De onderzoekers stelden naar aanleiding hiervan een rode lijst samen van lemuren die met uitsterven worden bedreigd.

Van de 103 verschillende soorten hoort 91% volgens de onderzoekers op deze rode lijst thuis. 23 Soorten lemuren moeten zelfs als ‘ernstig bedreigd’ worden beschouwd. Het predicaat ‘ernstig bedreigd’ is voorbehouden voor dieren waarvan er nog 50 of minder in het wild leven, of waarvan de populatie binnen tien jaar met minstens 80% is afgenomen.
“In totaal wordt 91% van de lemuren met uitsterven bedreigd. Dat percentage is veel hoger dan bij welke andere zoogdiersoort dan ook,” aldus onderzoeksleider Russ Mittermeier.

Oorzaken

Het vorige onderzoek naar lemuren, dat in 2008 plaatsvond, leverde een rode lijst van 40 soorten op, waarvan acht ernstig bedreigd. Als belangrijkste oorzaken voor de toename van het aantal bedreigde soorten worden houtkap en jacht op de dieren genoemd.
Lemurs 2012 07 13

Two ring-tailed lemur babies sit on their mother’s back at the zoo in Frankfurt, Germany, on Mar. 30, 2010. (THOMAS LOHNES /AFP/Getty Images)

A new survey shows lemurs are far more threatened than previously thought.

A group of specialists is in Madagascar – the only place where lemurs are found in the wild – to systematically assess the animals and decide where they sit on the Red List of Threatened Species.

More than 90% of the 103 species should be on the Red List, they say.

Since a coup in 2009, conservation groups have repeatedly found evidence of illegal logging, and hunting of lemurs has emerged as a new threat.

The assessment, conducted by the Primate Specialist Group of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), concludes that 23 lemurs qualify as Critically Endangered – the highest class of threat.
Fifty-two are in the Endangered classification, and a further 19 Vulnerable to extinction.

“That means that 91% of of all lemurs are assessed as being in one of the Red List threatened categories, which is far and away the largest proportion of any group of mammals,” said Russ Mittermeier, chairman of the specialist group and president of Conservation International.

Species can qualify for a Red List category on several measures.

A Critically Endangered listing can mean the population numbers less than 50 mature adults or that it has shrunk by 80% over 10 years, for example.

The previous lemur assessment, published in 2008, put eight species in the Critically Endangered class. Eighteen were Endangered, and 14 Vulnerable.
Hunting crisis //  The new assessment also confirms that there are more lemur species that previously thought.

We see local people hunting lemurs, even blue-eyed black and sportive lemurs which we never saw before”

End Quote Dr Christoph Schwitzer Bristol Zoo

Detailed observation and genetic testing have revealed several cases where populations that had been presumed to belong to one species were in fact from different ones.

The 103rd species, a mouse lemur that has yet to be named, was identified during the assessment exercise.

But the experts have been dismayed by ongoing deforestation, and have documented hunting of lemurs at levels not seen before.

“Several national parks have been invaded, but of greater concern is the breakdown in control and enforcement,” Dr Mittermeier told BBC News.

“There’s just no government enforcement capacity, so forests are being invaded for timber, and inevitably that brings hunting as well.”

Christoph Schwitzer, head of research at the UK’s Bristol Zoo, said his students had seen this at first hand in the northwest of the island.

The zoo runs a conservation project there with blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur flavifrons) and Sahamalaza sportive lemurs (Lepilemur sahamalazensis) – both Critically Endangered species.

About 90% of Madagascar’s original forest has been lost, with lemurs and the many other endemic forest-dwelling species clinging to an increasingly precarious existence in the fragments that remain.

lemur (primate suborder) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1059297/lemur

1333056-d8d116f4b816be154de1abcbbacf48ef


Taxonomy

Order: Primates
Suborder: Strepsirhini
Infraorder: Lemuriformes
Family: Lemuridae

Distribution and Habitat
Lemurs survive only on the island of Madagascar off the southeast coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean (shown in green), and on the neighboring Comoros islands. The various species of lemurs can be found in habitats as different as the lush, wet, rainforest of eastern Madagascar and the very dry spiny desert in the southwest.

Physical Description

Lemurs are primates. The species living today are small to medium-size mammals ranging from the smallest of all primates, the tiny pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus), which weighs only 30 grams (1 ounce), to the largest lemurs, the indri (Indri indri) and the diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema diadema), which weigh slightly over 7 kg (15 pounds) and can reach 4 feet (1.2 m) tall.

Coquerel's Sifaka

Coquerels kroonsifaka is een dagactieve maki uit het geslacht van de sifaka’s. Dit is een van de drie geslachten uit de familie van de indriachtigen. Wikipedia

 

MBG: Madagascar Biodiversity and Conservation – Coquerel’s Sifaka

Afbeeldingen van coquerel’s sifaka.

 

 

Lemurs like all, primates have binocular vision and grasping hands. However, unlike most other primates, lemurs and other prosimians have a rhinarium, a moist, very sensitive nose.

With the exception of the indri, lemurs have long furry tails. They use these tails for balance when leaping through the forest canopy, but unlike some New World monkeys, these tails are not prehensile, and lemurs cannot hang from them.

The Evolution of Lemurs
How and when lemurs diverged from the lineage that led to monkeys is unclear. Although it was once thought that lemurs were on Madagascar when the island separated from Africa, recent advances in geological science have shown that Madagascar was separated from Africa by hundreds of kilometers before lemurs evolved. Accordingly, the ancestors of Madagascar’s lemurs must have crossed over from Africa on floating vegetation early in primate evolution and become reproductively isolated from Africa.

Once on Madagascar, the lemurs underwent an amazing radiation, evolving into many different species. Then, about 2,000 years ago, the first human settlers arrived on Madagascar from the Malaysian-Indonesian area. By the time the Europeans who wrote about the natural history of the island reached Madagascar in the mid-1600s, 15 species of lemurs, forming eight entire genera, had become extinct.

All of these 15 fossil lemur species were larger than any of the surviving species. The largest of these was Archaeoindris, which is estimated to have weighed 350 to 440 pounds (160 to 200 kg), or as much as an adult male gorilla. Another group, the “sloth lemurs” includingBabakotia and Paleopropithecus, weighed 44 and 88 pounds, (20 and 40 kg) respectively, and appear to have traveled by hanging upside down from branches like current South American sloths. Another unusual extinct lemur, Megaladapis, 88 to 175 pounds, (40 to 80 kg), appears to have hung onto trees much like an Australian koala. The loss forever of these bizarre and wonderful animals in the recent past is unfortunate. As you know these species will not be the last to disappear unless we all act quickly to preserve the remaining species.

Lemurs are much less closely related to humans than are monkeys and apes. Living lemurs more closely resemble primitive primates that lived millions or tens of millions of years ago than do living monkeys. For this reason, the study of living lemurs can provide unique and highly valuable insight into primate evolution, including the evolution of human ancestors.

There are now 88 species of living lemurs divided into five surviving families:

Cheirogaleidae—Mouse and dwarf lemurs. This family boasts the smallest of all primates, the gray or lesser mouse lemur. These lemurs are nocturnal. They are solitary foragers but sleep in small groups.

red ruffed lemur 146558-050-294F70A4


Lemuridae
True lemurs. Our animals on Lemur Island, the ring-tailed lemur and the red-fronted lemur are found in this family as well as the red-ruffed lemur in the Small Mammal House. These lemurs have long bushy tails used for balancing as they jump from branch to branch. They have a well-developed sense of smell and often scent mark their territories.

Megaladapidae—Sportive lemurs are nocturnal and arboreal. They are primarily leaf eaters.

Indriidae—Woolly lemurs and sifakas are the largest of the lemur families. Some can reach four feet (1.2 m) from head to toe. The sifakas have long spring-like legs that allow them to jump over 30 feet (9 m) from tree to tree.

Daubentoniidae—The only member of this family is the rare aye-aye. They are solitary and nocturnal. They have elongated, narrow, flexible fingers that they use to reach under tree bark for grubs.

Social Structure

Lemurs spend most of their time in trees or large bushes, although the ring-tailed lemur, the most terrestrial species, may spend as much as half of its day on the ground. The smaller species tend to be nocturnal and solitary, but most of the larger species are active during the day, or diurnal. The diurnal lemurs also tend to live in social groups or mobs.

Lemurs feed primarily on leaves and fruits, and most are arboreal. For some of the nocturnal lemurs, insects form a large part of their diet.

Communication
Lemurs communicate vocally as well as through scent markings.

Conservation
Several species of lemur are endangered, largely due to deforestation. They are also hunted and trapped for the pet trade and food.

ring-tailed lemur

ringstaartmaki

Taxonomy

Order: Primates
Family: Lemuridae
Genus and species: Lemur catta

Distribution and Habitat
Ring-tailed lemurs are found in the southwest portion of Madagascar. They live in arid, open areas and forests. Ring-tailed lemurs live in territories that range from 15 to 57 acres (0.06 to 0.2 km2) in size.

Physical Description
The average body mass for adult males is six to seven pounds (3 kg). Females are usually smaller.

Ring-tailed lemur backs are gray to rosy brown, limbs are gray, and their heads and neck are dark gray. They have white bellies. Their faces are white with dark triangular eye patches and a black nose. Their tails are ringed with 13 alternating black and white bands. This famous tail can measure up to two feet (61 cm) in length.

Unlike most other lemurs, ring-tails spend 40 percent of their time on the ground. They move quadrupedally (on all fours) along the forest floor.

Social Structure
Ring-tailed lemurs are found in social groups ranging in size from three to 25 individuals. The groups are composed of both males and females. Females remain in their birth group throughout their lives. Generally males change groups when they reach sexual maturity, at age three. Ring-tail groups range over a considerable area each day in search of food, up to 3.5 miles (6 km). All group members use this common home range. Groups are often aggressive towards other groups at the border of these areas.

Females are dominant in the group, which means they have preferential access to food and choice of whom to mate with. This, like the gibbons, is unusual in the primate world. Males do have a dominance hierarchy, but this does not seem important during mating season because even low-ranking males are able to copulate.

Females have been seen to have closer social bonds with other female relatives in a group than they do with unrelated females.

These social bonds are established and reinforced by grooming. Prosimians groom in a rather unique way, all prosimians have six lower teeth, incisors and canines, that stick straight out from their jaw, forming a toothcomb. This comb is used to groom their fur and the fur of the other members of their social group.

One of the most unusual lemur activities that ring-tailed lemurs participate in is sunbathing. The ring-tailed mob will gather in open areas of the forest and sit in what some call a yoga position facing the sun. They sit with their bellies toward the sun and their arms and legs stretched out to the sides. This position maximizes the exposure of the less densely covered underside to the sun. The temperature in the forest can be cold at night and this is a way to warm up before they forage.

Communication
As true with all lemurs, olfactory (smell-oriented) communication is important for ring-tails. Ring-tailed lemurs have scent glands on their wrists and chests that they use to mark their foraging routes. Males even have a horny spur on each wrist gland that they use to pierce tree branches before scent-marking them.

  • Tail flick: Secretions from the wrist glands are rubbed on the tail and flicked at an opponent.

Ring-tailed lemurs communicate visually in a number of ways as well. When ring-tail troops travel throughout their home range, they keep their tails raised in the air, like flags, to keep group members together. They also communicate using facial expressions. Some examples:

  • Staring open-mouth face: The eyes are opened wide, the mouth is open with the teeth covered by the lips. This occurs when mobbing a predator or serves to communicate an inhibited threat.
  • Staring bared-teeth scream face: The eyes are opened wide, the mouth is open with the corners drawn back so that the teeth and gums are revealed. This display occurs with terror flight.
  • Silent bared-teeth face: The eyes are staring at the stimulus, the eye brows are either relaxed or up, and the corners of the mouth are drawn back allowing the teeth to show. This is used to communicate submission or a friendly approach.
  • Bared-teeth gecker face: Similar to silent bared-teeth face only with a rapid noise attached to it. This display occurs during subordinate flee-approach conflicts and also when an infant is bothered.
  • Pout face: The eyes are opened wide and the lips are pushed forward such that the mouth resembles an “O” shape. This occurs with contact calls and also occurs with begging.
  • Hoot face: The lips are pushed forward to resemble something called a “trumpet-mouth.” This display occurs with long-distance calls (e.g. territorial calls).

Ring-tailed lemurs are one of the most vocal primates. They have several different alarm calls to alert members of their group to potential danger. Common calls include:

  • Infant contact: soft purr
  • Cohesion: cat’s meow. Used when the group is widely dispersed.
  • Territorial: howl. Can be heard for over a half a mile (1 km).
  • Alarm: Starts as a grunt then becomes a bark.
  • Repulsion: series of staccato grunt sounds. It occurs between two individuals.

Reproduction and Development
Females usually produce their first offspring at age three, and annually thereafter. This can happen as early as 18 months in captivity.

In the wild, mating is extremely seasonal beginning in mid-April with infants being born in August and September. Gestation lasts four and a half months. Generally ring-tailed lemurs give birth to one offspring, but twins can be a frequent sight if food is plentiful.

Initially, infants cling to their mother’s belly, but after about two weeks, they can be seen riding jockey style, on their mother’s back. Infants begin sampling solid food after about a week and will become increasingly independent after about a month. They return to mom to nurse or sleep until they are weaned at about five or six months of age. All adult females participate in raising the offspring of the group.

Life Span
Ring-tails can live 20 to 25 years.

Diet in the Wild
The main diet of ring-tails consists of leaves, flowers, and insects. They can also eat fruit, herbs, and small vertebrates.

Zoo Diet
Once a day, they are fed a mixture of fruits and vegetables and leaf-eater biscuits.

Health Care
Each animal has a yearly physical, including a dental checkup. Fecals are checked for parasites every January and June.

The National Zoo’s Ring-tailed Lemurs
The Zoo is not actively breeding lemurs. These animals have well represented genes and the SSP does not need them as part of the breeding population. The Zoo currently houses eight ring-tails, two males and six females. They arrived from the Duke Primate Research Center in September 2001.

Conservation
Ring-tailed lemurs are endangered. The gallery forests of Madagascar that these lemurs prefer are rapidly being converted to farmland, overgrazed by livestock, and harvested for charcoal production. They are also hunted for food in certain areas of their range and are frequently kept as pets. Fortunately, ring-tails are found in several protected areas in southern Madagascar, but the level of protection varies widely in these areas, offering only some populations protection from hunting and habitat loss.

Ring-tailed lemurs breed very well in captivity, and more than 1,000 can be found at about 140 zoos around the world.

 

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Red-fronted brown lemur

Red-fronted brown lemur  (Tsingy de Bemaraha)

Taxonomy

Order: Primates
Family: Lemuridae
Genus and species: Eulemur fulvus rufus

Distribution and Habitat
Red-fronted lemurs live in the deciduous forests of western and eastern Madagascar, off the southeast coast of Africa.

Red-fronted lemurs are the only subspecies of Eulemur in the western part of its range.

Eulemur fulvus rufus in tree at Kirindy(Kirindy)  Eulemur fulvus rufus in tree at Kirindy

Eulemur fulvus rufus (Tsingy de Bemaraha)

Physical Description
The red-fronted lemur is one of seven subspecies of brown lemur. They are all sexually dichromatic, meaning that males and females have different fur patterns. Males are grey to grey-brown and females are reddish brown. Both sexes have pale patches over their eyes, and the males have a reddish crown.

They are about the size of a house cat, 4.5 to 8 pounds (2 to 4 kg). Their tails can measure as much as 22 inches (56 cm).

This is an arboreal species that moves through the forest canopy quadrupedally (on all fours). It is also capable of leaping.

Social Structure
Red-fronted lemurs live in multimale-multifemale social groups of between four and 18 individuals, although the average group size is seven to eight. Both home and day ranges for this subspecies are very small, usually less than 2.5 acres (0.01 km2). Unlike many prosimians, red-fronted lemurs do not show marked female dominance.

Social bonds within the group are established and reinforced by grooming. Prosimians groom in a unique way. Most prosimians, including red-fronted lemurs, have six lower teeth that stick straight out from their jaw, forming a dental comb that the animals use to groom their fur and the fur of other members of their social group.

Communication
As with all true lemurs, olfactory (smell-oriented) communication is extraordinarily important, used in such capacities as transmitting physical state, locomotion, and individual recognition.

Red-fronted lemurs have a few documented calls:

  • Ohn: nasal sound. It is used in maintaining group cohesion.
  • Cree: high pitched sound. It is a territorial call.
  • Crou: alarm call. Signal of danger to other lemurs.

Reproduction and Development
In the wild, female red-fronted lemurs give birth to one offspring in the fall, after a gestation period of approximately four months. Infants cling to their mother’s belly for the first three weeks, shifting only to nurse. At approximately three weeks of age, the young lemurs will begin spending time riding, jockey style, on the mother’s back, and then will take their first tentative steps. With this hint of independence, infants begin to taste solid food, sampling bits of whatever the other members of their group are eating. Nursing continues, in a steady decline in importance in the infant’s diet, until the infant is weaned at approximately four to five months of age. Males have been known to assist the females with child rearing.

Life Span
Red-fronted lemurs can live 20 to 25 years.

Diet in the Wild
They are mainly folivorous, or leaf-eating, lemurs. They can also eat flowers, fruit, and bark. However, red-fronted lemurs have very adaptable diets, shifting to invertebrates and fungi when plant matter is scarce.

Zoo Diet
They are fed a mixture of fruits and vegetables and Marion leaf-eater biscuits.

Health Care
Each animal has an annual physical, including a dental checkup. Fecals are checked for parasites every January and June.

The National Zoo’s Red-fronted Lemurs
The Zoo is not actively breeding lemurs. These animals have well represented genes and the SSP does not need them as part of the breeding population. The Zoo currently houses two red-fronted lemurs, one male and one female on Lemur Island. They arrived from the Duke Primate Research Center in September 2001.

Conservation
Forest destruction is the primary threat to the survival of red-fronted lemurs. In the west, forests are being cleared for pasture, while in the east, the forests are burned for slash-and-burn agriculture and cut for charcoal production. Red-fronted lemurs are found in several protected areas in Madagascar, and may be one of the more protected subspecies of brown lemur.

Lemur References:

Brown Lemur (Eulemur fulvus), 2000, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin – Madison, (link no longer active)

The Lemur Database,
link tohttp://www.stormloader.com/lemur/ringtailed.html 

Red-fronted Lemurs, 1999, Duke University Primate Research Center (link no longer active)

Ring-tailed Lemurs, 1999, Duke University Primate Research Center
link tohttp://www.duke.edu/web/primate

Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta), 2000, Wisconsin Regional

Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin – Madison

The Variety of Living Lemurs, 1999, Duke University Primate Research Center

http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/Primates/MeetPrimates/MeetLemurs/default.cfm

Ring Tailed Lemurs

Ring-Tailed Lemurs
Endangered 
Names:
 Snair, Mary, Eve, Ivy, Sygmond, Kicker

and many more!


More Info
Go To Webcams
Black & White Lemu

Black & White Lemurs
Endangered 
Names: Shredder, Echo, IHOP, and many more!


More Info
Go To Webcams
Red Ruff Lemurs

Red Ruffed Lemurs
Endangered 
Names: Wilma, Durango, & Betty


Greater Bamboo Lemur
Prolemur simus


Gray-headed Lemur
Eulemur cinereiceps


Sclater’s Lemur
Eulemur flavifrons


Northern Sportive Lemur
Lepilemur septentrionalis


Silky Sifaka
Propithecus candidus

Callicebus-caquetensis

http://www.volkskrant.nl/wetenschap/article1408832.ece/Nieuwe_apensoort_ontdekt_in_Colombia

Pas ontdekt maar  bedreigd 


Cotton-top Tamarin
Saguinus oedipus

Cotton-top tamarin, Belfast Zoo, Belfast, Ireland, July 2009

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Cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), Colombia, Primates in Peril: The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2008–2010 has been compiled by the Primate Specialist Group of IUCN’s Species Survival Commission (SSC) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), in collaboration with Conservation International (CI). © CI/photo by Russell A. Mittermeier

http://smu.gs/SkRvi8

cottontop-tamarin

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Brown Spider Monkey
Ateles hybridus


Yellow-tailed Woolly M.
Oreonax flavicauda

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