DINOSAURICON S


INHOUD  S

 


Top: Saurolophus (Duckbilled Hadrosaur) Skull.
Bottom: Juvenile Ornithopod Skull.

 

Saurolopus Angustirostris.jpg

SAUROPODOMORHS /

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SAUROPODS

Sauropoda

http://sauroposeidon.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/wedel-2003-evolution-of-pneumaticity.pdf

 Ignacio A. Cerda, Leonardo Salgado, and Jaime E. Powell wrote an article titled Extreme postcranial pneumaticity in sauropod dinosaurs from South America. It was published in 2012 in Palaontologische Zeitschrift. This quote from the abstract says:

Birds are unique among living tetrapods in possessing pneumaticity of the postcranial skeleton, with invasion of bone by the lung and air-sac system. Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP) has been reported in numerous extinct archosaurs including pterosaurs and non-avian dinosaurs. Here we report a case of small-bodied, armored sauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of South America. Based on osteological data, we report an extensive invasion of pneumatic diverticula along the vertebral column, reaching the distal portion of the tail. Also, we provide evidence of pneumaticity in both pectoral and pelvic girdles. Our study reveals that the extreme PSP in archosaurs is not restricted to pterosaurs and theropod dinosaurs.
19 augustus 2013 
sauropoda

Nieuw onderzoek wijst erop dat de  nekken van plantenetende dino’s  een stuk minder flexibel waren dan gedacht.

Die conclusie trekken wetenschappers in het blad PLoS ONE.

Verrassend genoeg baseren ze hun conclusies niet direct op een studie onder de Sauropoda: de plantenetende dino’s met hun lange nekken. Nee, in plaats daarvan bestudeerden ze de nek van de struisvogel. En dat is niet zo gek als het lijkt, zo benadrukken de onderzoekers.

Ze wijzen erop dat ook de sauropoda  verre voorouders van de vogels zijn.(1)

Bovendien “is de morfologie van de wervels en nekspieren (van de struisvogel, red.) goed vergelijkbaar met die van de Sauropoda”, zo schrijven ze.

De flexibiliteit van de struisvogelnek. Afbeelding: Cobley MJ, Rayfield EJ, Barrett PM (2013) Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72187. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072187.

De flexibiliteit van de struisvogelnek. Afbeelding: Cobley MJ, Rayfield EJ, Barrett PM (2013) Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility.

PLoS ONE 8(8): e72187. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072187.

De onderzoekers bestudeerden in totaal drie struisvogelnekken. In tegenstelling tot eerdere onderzoeken keken ze niet alleen naar de botjes in de nek, maar ook naar het weefsel ertussen. En uit dat onderzoek blijkt dat dat weefsel de nek aanzienlijk minder flexibel maakt. “De zachte weefsels in de nek beperken absoluut de flexibiliteit,” zo stellen de onderzoekers. Toen ze de weefsels verwijderden, nam die flexibiliteit namelijk enorm toe. “Daarom moet er rekening worden gehouden met de spiermassa als we de flexibiliteit (van de nek, red.) willen voorspellen.” En ook het kraakbeen heeft invloed op de flexibiliteit.Wanneer de onderzoekers die conclusies vervolgens loslaten op de Sauropoda, moeten ze concluderen dat de nek van deze giganten niet zo flexibel was. En dat verandert onze kijk op de wijze waarop de Sauropoda aan hun voedsel kwamen. De plantenetende dino’s zijn de grootste dino’s die ooit op aarde hebben rondgelopen. Om hun enorme lichaam draaiende te houden, moesten ze dagelijks enkele honderden kilo’s voedsel naar binnen werken. Onderzoekers dachten altijd dat ze daarvoor niet ver hoefden te wandelen. Ze konden dankzij hun lange nekken vanaf één locatie van de grond en van tal van boomtakken eten. Maar dit onderzoek trekt dat nu in twijfel. Als de nek niet zo flexibel was, moesten de Sauropoda mogelijk hun lichaam meer bewegen om toch aan voldoende voedsel te kunnen komen.

Bronmateriaal:
Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility” – PLoS ONE
De afbeelding bovenaan dit artikel is gemaakt door Kildevil (via Wikimedia Commons).

(1).-

uiteraard is het de tak van de  theropoda (en in het bijzonder de  maniraptorae )die (volgens de gangbare consensus  nog altijd ) het dichts bij de  aviales (vogels ) staat

“Sauropods are stem avians,”zegt het plos artikel   ; het   betekent slechts dat theropoda  ( waartoe de vogels (aviales )behoren )  en sauropoda  samen  allicht  een  gemeenschappelijke voorouder hebben :   te vinden onder de eerste (oudste ) dinosauriers  (net zoals ook  placentale en marsupiale zoogdieren  ook een (veronderstelde  )  voorouderlijke stam onder de  vroege   mammiliformes  moeten  hebben gehad )

http://sauroposeidon.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/wedel-2007-prosauropods.pdf

 

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Het stukje schedel dat onderzoekers hebben teruggevonden en hoe dat in de schedel van de dinosaurus heeft gepast. Ook de verhouding tot de schedel van de mens is mooi in kaart gebracht.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667112001395

Full-size image (48 K)

<img hspace=”2″ height=”163″ border=”0″ align=”middle” width=”189″ vspace=”2″ alt=”Full-size image (48 K)” title=”Full-size image (48 K)” src=”http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0195667112001395-gr3.sml” data-thumbsrc=”http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0195667112001395-gr3.sml” data-fullsrc=”http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0195667112001395-gr3.jpg”>

Shortest tree recovered by the phylogenetic analysis (Tree length = 2463, CI = 0.3886, RI = 0.5196). Numbers adjacent to nodes indicate the Bremer Support values >1. Abbreviations: ALLOS, Allosauroidea; CARCHAR, Carcharodontosauridae.

according to Smithsonian Magazine. <–

http://theropoda.blogspot.be/2012/10/sauroniops-pachytholus-cau-dalla.html

app20110043[1] sauroniops <–pdf

http://carnivoraforum.com/topic/9749866/1/

De Sauroniops pachytholus is een vleesetende theropode dinosauriër, behorend tot de groep van de Carnosauria, die tijdens het late Krijt leefde in het gebied van het huidige Marokko. De soort werd in 2012 gemeld en beschreven door Andrea Cau, Marco Dalla Vecchia en Matteo Fabbri en nog hetzelfde jaar door dezelfde auteurs benoemd in een opvolgend artikel.

Een 12 meter  theropode  :  Paleontologen ontdekten enkel de schedel van de dinosaurus, maar in deze schedel zaten wel enorme oogkassen. De paleontologen van het Museum van Geologie Giovanni Capellini in Bologna uit Italië noemen het enorme beest Sauroniops pachytholus, of “Oog van Sauron” in het Grieks. Dit beest zwierf zo’n 95 miljoen jaar geleden over deze aarde in Noord afrika.

 Andrea Cau  ….”Het idee om deze enorme jager zo te noemen, kwam na het zien van de schedel. Het beest met die oogkassen deed me direct denken aan Sauron uit de film van Peter Jackson.”

De soortaanduiding   pachytholus    betekent “dik schedeldak”.

Het holotype, MPM 2594, is gevonden in de Kem Kem-lagen die dateren uit het Cenomanien. Het bestaat uit een linkervoorhoofdsbeen. Sauroniops is door de beschrijvers ingedeeld  bij  de Carcharodontosauridae

* Aan de hand van het voorhoofdsbeen van Sauroniops blijkt dat deze soort waarschijnlijk een knobbel of bult op zijn voorhoofd heeft gehad. Deze had vermoedelijk een rol bij het baltsen. Carcharodontosauriden  bezaten sowieso  opvallende lichaamskenmerken die vermoedelijk een rol gespeeld hebben bij de sexuele selectie, zoals de opvallende rug van de Acrocanthosaurus.De Carcharodontosauridae was een familie van enorme roofdino’s, met meerdere soorten die groter waren dan T-rex.Ze vormen een aftakking van de bekendere Allosauridae.

http://www.scientias.nl/nieuwe-dinosoort-vernoemd-naar-sauron/75397

Bronmateriaal:
Sauroniops pachytholus (Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri 2012b): The Carcharodontosauridae “abelisauro-mime”” – Theropoda.blogspot.nl

http://www.flickr.com/photos/rescuedbyrover/4196403922/sizes/m/in/photostream/

http://dinosaurpalaeo.wordpress.com/2012/11/17/clubbing/

NHM in London //Partial tail and tail club of Euoplocephalus tutus in the NHM’s Dinosaur Hall.

The NHM has a very nice specimen that goes with it, an articulated individual of “Scolosaurus cutleri” (junior synonym of E. tutus), that is nearly complete

File:Scolosaurus cutleri.JPG

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Scolosaurus_cutleri.JPG

Jan 13, ’13 by Neal

Pal Penkalski and William T. Blows wrote an article titled Scolosaurus cutleri (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada. It was published in 2013 in the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. This quote from the abstract says:

The synonomy of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Scolosaurus with Euoplocephalus has been widely accepted since the 1970’s. However, Scolosaurus cutleri exhibits differences which separate it from Euoplocephalus tutus and Dryoplocephalus acutosquamus. Although the holotype of Euoplocephalus is fragementary, several other specimens can be reliably referred to this taxon and used for comparison. Scolosaurus differes from Euoplocephalus in cervical half-ring, osteoderm, and forelimb morphology. Scolosaurus differs from Dyoplosaurus primarily in pelvic morphology and osteoderm shape. Recognition of Scolosaurus as a valid taxon adds to the growing concept that the Upper Cretaceous ankylosaurid fauna of North America was more diverse than previously thought.

Artist’s restoration of Segisaurus.

   
Known from a single fragmentary skeleton which is missing the skull, Segisaurus is one of the last Coelophysoid of North America.The “Tsegi Canyon lizard,” S. halli is the type and only species of Segisaurus.
The only known specimen of this coelophysid was discovered in 1933 in Arizona, and is the only dinosaur to have ever been excavated from the site.
It was described by Charles Lewis Camp in 1936, who omitted the ‘T’ at the beginning of the name of the canyon for which it is named.Segisaurus lived during the Early Jurassic period about 183 million years ago, and was about a meter long, half a meter tall, and weighed about 4-7 kilograms.
It appears to have been closely related to the more famous Coelophysis. It is known from only a single, incomplete skeleton which which lacks the skull and most of its dorsal and cervical vertebrae.
Segisaurus has a unique opening in the ischial portion of its puboischial plate.Known from a single fragmentary skeleton which is missing the skull, Segisaurus is one of the last Coelophysoid of

Segnosaurus July 22, 2011  Filed under: Theropoda —

Segnosaurus showed an unusual combination of features of ornithischians, theropods and prosauropods. Its pelvis looked like the pelvis of the dromaeosaurids, although it was much larger. Segnosaurus had feet with long, slender theropod-like claws and ankles, although it had four toes instead of three on each foot. The teeth, although there were many and small, resembled those of some theropods.

We know of only a few remains of Segnosaurus, but the whole animal can be restored by comparison with its close relatives. The head is based on the skull of the closely related Erlikosaurus, and the feathery covering comes from an early Cretaceous form, Beipiaosaurus, found perfectly preserved in the Liaoning sediments, in China.
Factbox//Name: Segnosaurus, meaning ‘slow reptile’ Size: 4-9m long Food: probably plants, but some experts have suggested meat and fish Lived: 75 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period in MongoliaThe fragmentary remains of this genus show the typical down-turned jaw with the leaf-shaped teeth, and the hip bones with the swept-back pubis that give the impression of an ornithischian dinosaur. These are important details in establishing the makeup of this whole line of dinosaur. It is such an important animal that the name Segnosauria has been proposed as alternative name for the group. Fossil eggs about the size of duck eggs have been attributed to these animals.Experts are not sure what sort of food Segnosaurus ate. It had teeth at the back of its jaw to cut up food – like the bipedal carnivores. But at the front of its mouth was a toothless beak – like some of the herbivores. Indeed, the dinosaur was probably omnivorous.Segnosaurus also had feet quite unlike those of ordinary carnivores. It had sturdy legs and short, broad feet which ended in four toes. Some experts think that the feet may have been webbed.The scientist who named Segnosaurus in 1979 suggested that it waded, or even swam, catching fish with its claws or in its toothless beak. But scientists are still unsure; it is possible that it was a herbivore and used its beak to nip off leaves.The restoration is largely based on the partial remains of three skeletons. It differs from other therizinosaurids by the arrangement of teeth in the jaw.
Seismosaurus

seismosaurus pictures

En 1986, des paléontologues ont découvert au Nouveau-Mexique de nombreux fragments de la colonne vertébrale et du bassin d’un dinosaure baptisé Seismosaurus.

Seismosaurus vivait au Jurassique supérieur. Il fait partie de la famille des Diplodocidae

Initialement, la taille avait été largement surestimée à cause d’un placement erronée des vertèbres.

Seismosaurus avalait puis digérait grâce aux gastrolithes de grandes quantités de végétaux. 230 gastrolithes ont été trouvées à l’emplacement de l’estomac.

Seismosaurus

Seismosaurus exposé a New Mexico. By Terra Nova

Les roches dans lesquelles a été retrouvé Seismosaurus (Colorado Morrison Formation) contenaient également les fossiles d’ Amphicoelias et Supersaurus. Ces deux derniers étaient sans doute encore plus imposants que Seismosaurus.

Leurs squelettes sont très fragmentaires.

Il n’est pas certain que Seismosaurus soit une espèce à part entière. Il est très probable qu’il s’agisse d’un Diplodocus.

Seismosaurus hallorum deviendrait alors Diplodocus hallorum.

Classification : Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Sauropoda Diplodocidae
Gillette, 1991

Espèce type: Seismosaurus hallorum

File:Seismosaurus SK.jpg

V.B (02.2004). M.à.J 03.2008.

Siats meekerorum

http://nl.pinterest.com/tsjok/dinosauricon-n-neovenatoridae/

Nieuwe monsterdinosaurus ontdekt

22/11/2013 om 17:35

In de Verenigde Staten werd  een gigantische vleesetende dinosaurussoort ontdekt. Het gaat om de Siats meekerorum. Het beest kreeg een naam naar een mensenetend monster uit een indianenlegende.

 

Siats meekerorum. Afbeelding: Jorge Gonzales.
Dinosaurus Siats meekerorum © IMAGEGLOBE

In de Verenigde Staten werd  een nieuwe vleesetende dinosaurussoort ontdekt. Het dier leefde tijdens het Boven-Krijt en is een van de drie grootste soorten die ooit in Noord-Amerika werden ontdekt. Dat maakten paleontologen vrijdag in het tijdschrift Nature Communications bekend.

De “siats meekerorum”, een naam die refereert aan het mensetende monster uit een indianenlegende, is slechts de tweede dinosaurus uit de carcharodontosaurus-familie, gigantische vleesetende dinosaurussen, die in Noord-Amerika werd ontdekt. De eerste Noord-Amerikaanse carcharodontosaurus, acrocanthosaurus atokensis werd in 1950 ontdekt.

Het skelet van de siats, beschreven door Lindsey Zanno (museum voor natuurwetenschappen van North Carolina) en Peter Makovicky (Field Museum in Chicago), is dat van een jong exemplaar van meer dan 9 meter groot en 4 ton zwaar. Toch is het gigantische skelet dat van een jong dier.

siats 3

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Figure 3: Select pelvic and hindlimb elements of the holotype of S. meekerorum. (a) Right ilium in lateral view; (b) fibula in lateral view; right ischium in (c) ventral, (d) proximal and (e) lateral views; (f) pedal phalanx III-2 in lateral view; (g) right pedal phalanx II-1 in medial view. Scale bar: 5 cm. arp, acetabular rim of pubic peduncle of ilium; bf, brevis fossa; cf, cuppedicus fossa; ilp, iliac peduncle of ischium; isp, ischial peduncle of ilium; lif, ligament fossa; lw, lateral wall of brevis fossa; Maf, M. adductor femoris scar on ischium; Mcf, M. caudofemoralis origin; pil, pubic peduncle of ilium; pp, pubic peduncle of ischium.

De onderzoekers schatten dat een volwassen dier ongeveer zo groot kan worden als een acrocanthosaurus. De twee soorten blijven daarmee qua grootte achter de tyrannosaurus rex, die tot negen ton kon wegen.

Volgens de onderzoekers heerste de siats tijdens het Boven-Krijt (tussen de 100 en 66 miljoen jaar geleden) over het gebied dat vandaag de staat Utah is. Tot nu toe was nog niet geweten wie het voornaamste roofdier uit die periode was in Noord-Amerika. Tijdens de periode van de Siats was het landsschap groen en werd het bevolkt door herbivoren, schildpadden, krokodillen en andere roofdieren zoals de eerste tyrannosauridae .

“De carcharodontosaurussen hebben langer geregeerd in Noord-Amerika dan we hadden verwacht”, verklaarde Lindsey Zanno. Meer nog, de siats overbrugt een lacune van meer dan 30 miljoen jaar in het fossielenregister, een periode waarin de rol van belangrijkste roofdier van de carcharodontosaurus in het Onder-Krijt werd overgenomen door de tyrannosaurus aan het einde van het Krijt.

siats 4

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Figure 4: Evolutionary relationships of apex predators in the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous of North America. Apex predator role defined as largest predators per time bin, generally estimated as species with a femur length >1 m15; (a) trifaunal characterization of predator guilds with unique taxonomic and mass compositions: a diverse, mixed mass, Late Jurassic predator assemblage, mid-Cretaceous gigantic carcharodontosaurian dominated fauna and terminal large-bodied to gigantic tyrannosaurid guild. Grey boxes on timescale to left indicate spans when apex predators achieved gigantism, topping estimates of 3,500 kg30. Chronostratigraphic occurrences follow30; (b) combinable component consensus tree showing taxonomy and relationships of North American predators during this interval and S. meekerorum posited as a megaraptoran neovenatorid. Numbers at nodes denote Bremer support values. Taxon colours consistent between parts a and b. Ma equals million years ago.

siat 5

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Figure 5: Distribution of Carcharodontosauria in time and space. (a) Combinable component consensus tree showing chronostratigraphic distribution of Allosauria; (b) mid-Cretaceous (Aptian-Cenomanian) paleobiogeographic map of Carcharodontosauria, illustrating the former western North American gap filled by discovery of Siats. Previously known generalized areas denoted with black stars, newly described distribution in western North America marked with red star. Map adapted from ref. 69 with permission from Elsevier.

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Siats zou er zo voor kunnen gezorgd hebben dat de kleine tyrannosaurussen zich niet als koning van de voedselketen konden vestigen. Pas toen de siats verdween, konden de tyrannosauridae  evolueren tot een enorm roofdier zoals de T.REX .

Siats meekerorum   nature

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http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038%2Fncomms3827?tab=summary

S. meekerorum behoort tot een groep roofdinosaurussen waarvan eerder alleen fossiele resten in Azië, Australië en Zuid-Amerika zijn teruggevonden.

“Dit is het eerste bewijs dat deze dieren in Noord-Amerika voorkwamen,” vertelt Pete Makovicky, verbonden aan The Field Museum, een partij die meewerkte aan de ontdekking. “Tot een paar jaar geleden wisten we niet dat deze dinosaurussen op noordelijke continenten voorkwamen, dus dachten we dat de dinosaurussen die op noordelijke continenten leefden zich onderscheidden van de dino’s die op de zuidelijke continenten leefden, vanwege de continentverschuiving. Maar nu blijkt dat het vinden van dinosaurussen die nauw aan elkaar verwant zijn en op verschillende continenten leefden, beter dan gedacht in staat waren om hindernissen zoals oceanen te overwinnen.”

Naast Siats hebben de onderzoekers nog twee andere soorten dinosaurussen in het gebied ontdekt. Ze hopen deze later dit jaar te presenteren en verwachten niet dat het daarbij blijft: er zouden in het gebied nog veel meer dinosaurussen op hun ontdekking liggen te wachten.

Bronmateriaal:
Dino discovery” – Fieldmuseum.org
Colossal New Predatory Dino Terrorized Early Tyrannosaurs” – NCSU.edu

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Sterk bewijs dat dino’s veren gebruikten om partner te versieren

04 januari 2013   11

similicaudipteryx

Wetenschappers hebben het sterkste bewijs tot nog toe gevonden dat sommige dinosaurussen hun veren puur gebruikten om een partner te versieren. Ze schudden er waarschijnlijk flink op los met hun verenbos.

De onderzoekers bestudeerden de oviraptor.

De laatste wervels van deze groep dinosaurussen vormden één geheel. Het staartbeen was als het ware vergroeid. “Deze structuur noemen we pygostyle,” vertelt onderzoeker Scott Persons. “Onder moderne dieren hebben alleen vogels deze nog.”

 

Eén van de oviraptors die de onderzoekers bestudeerden, was de dinosaurus Similicaudipteryx. Deze had op het vergroeide staartbeen veren. Deze waaierden zich rond de staart uit. Van deze dino weten we dat hij niet kon vliegen. Waartoe dienden de veren dan? Het vermoeden bestond dat hij de veren gebruikte om een partner te versieren. Om te achterhalen of dat vermoeden klopte, bestudeerde Persons de structuur van het bot en de spieren in de staart. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de botten en spieren het mogelijk maakten voor Similicaudipteryx om flink met zijn staart te schudden en de veren op en neer te bewegen.

Similicaudipteryx was één van de eerste oviraptors. Maar ook latere exemplaren konden heel goed met hun staart schudden. Dat wijst erop dat de staart van dino’s uit deze groep ook veel later nog hetzelfde doel diende. “In die tijd waren er ook al dinosaurussen die veren gebruikten om te vliegen of om zich te beschermen tegen de kou,” vertelt Persons. “Dit (onderzoek, red.) laat zien dat dinosaurussen aan het einde van het Krijt al alles met hun vleugels konden doen wat ook moderne vogels nu doen.”

Best evidence yet that dinosaurs used feathers for courtship” – University of Alberta (via Eurekalert.org).
De foto bovenaan dit artikel is afkomstig van de website van de University of Maryland).

 

Sinocalliopteryx gigas

Holotype of Sinocalliopteryx gigas. (Credit: Xing et al., Abdominal Contents from Two Large Early Cretaceous Compsognathids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Demonstrate Feeding on Confuciusornithids and Dromaeosaurids. 
Lida Xing, Phil R. Bell, W. Scott Persons, Shuan Ji, Tetsuto Miyashita, Michael E. Burns, Qiang Ji, Philip J. Currie. Abdominal Contents from Two Large Early Cretaceous Compsognathids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Demonstrate Feeding on Confuciusornithids and Dromaeosaurids. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (8): e44012 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044012

 

Sinocalliopteryx gigas (Ji, Ji Lu and Yuan 2007) Early Cretaceous ~125 mya, 2.75 m in length, was derived from a sister to Juravenator and Tawa. A sister to Sinocalliopteryxpreceded Archaeopteryx and the rest of the birds. While Sinocalliopteryx lived later thanArchaeopteryx, much smaller sister taxa with similar traits must have lived much earlier in the Middle Jurassic.
Overall much larger and distinct from Juravenator, the skull of Sinocalliopteryx had a lower, more pointed snout and a smaller antorbital fenestra. The jugal was taller, which raised the smaller orbit. The lateral temporal fenestra was shorter. The teeth were relatively smaller.
The dorsal vertebrae were shorter and there were fewer dorsal ribs. The neural spines of the posterior dorsals were taller. The tail was relatively shorter.
The coracoid was larger. The metacarpals were shorter and the fingers were longer with highly curved claws.
The ilium was deeper. The pubis was directed ventrally. The hindlimb was longer.
Sinocalliopteryx was more fully feathered, especially on the torso and hind limbs. With such large hands and grappling claws, it is probable that smaller sisters of Sinocalliopteryxbegan to climb trees.
Ji S, Ji Q, Lu J and Yuan C 2007. A new giant compsognathid dinosaur with long filamentous integuments from Lower Cretaceous of Northeastern China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 81(1): 8-15.
wiki/Sinocalliopteryx
http://www.reptileevolution.com/sinocalliopteryx.htm

Sinocalliopteryx gigas

Geschreven op 31 augustus 2012 om 12:46 uur door 3

De dinosaurus Sinocalliopteryx kon niet vliegen, maar hij at wel vliegende dino’s. Dit blijkt uit een onderzoek van wetenschappers van de universiteit van Alberta. De wetenschappers ontdekten fossielen van drie vliegende dino’s in de maag van een gefossiliseerde Sinocalliopteryx.

De Sinocalliopteryx was een gevederde dinosaurus met de looks van een roofvogel. Toch kon hij niet vliegen. De Sinocalliopteryx was twee meter lang, waardoor de dino niet veel langer was dan een hedendaagse wolf.

In de maag van een Sinocalliopteryx vonden wetenschappers drie Confuciusornissen. De Confuciusornis was één van eerste vogels en had een lengte van ongeveer twintig centimeter. De middelgrote vogel bleek niet in staat om lange afstanden te vliegen. De wetenschappers Robert Nudds en Gareth Dyke publiceerden in 2010 een onderzoek dat de Confuciusornissen enkel glijvluchten konden maken. De slagpennen op het einde van de vleugel van de Confuciusornis zouden een te zwakke en te dunne as hebben om een klappende vlucht te ondersteunen.

Stealth-technieken
Aangezien de Confuciusornis enkel korte afstanden kon viegen, zag de Sinocalliopteryx in de vogel een fijn hapje. Waarschijnlijk gebruikte de dino stealth om de vogel te stalken. De Sinocalliopteryx kon namelijk niet in bomen klimmen, zoals de Confuciusornis____ die laatste was  echter  geen hoogvlieger  

De Sinocalliopteryx was waarschijnlijk een echte jager en een gretige eter. Dit verklaart waarom er niet één, maar drie Confuciusornissen in de maag van de dino te vinden zijn.

Tweede exemplaar
De Amerikaanse wetenschappers vonden het fossiel in de Chinese provincie Liaoning.

Zij troffen nog een ander exemplaar van de Sinocalliopteryx aan. Ook de maag van deze dino was goed gevuld, namelijk met een Sinornithosaurus. Dit was een kleine vleesetende dino ter grootte van een kat.

Image and text copyright 2004-2007, Feenixx Publishing, Inc.Means: “Chinese dragon feather”: Early Cretaceous – 130 MYa: Liaoning Province, China/(1.3 m) (2.5 kg)Sinosauropteryx is the first dinosaur fossil ever found that showed evidence of having feathers. It has been called one of the most exciting scientific discoveries in decades. This animal was not a bird, but rather a theropod dinosaur. This Chinese fossil clearly shows defined feathers around much of this little dinosaur! It was a small, swift hunter that could not fly, but it seems to demonstrate that dinosaurswere beginning to look and act more like birds. It is a very important fossil for a number of reasons. First, and perhaps most importantly, it is a critical piece of evidence supporting the argument that birds descended from dinosaurs. Additionally, depending on its exact classification, it shows that at least some non-avian coelurosaurs were feathered. The exact use of the feathers will be debated for some time. They are clearly not flight feathers, but they may have been used for insulation, courtship display, individual identification, or a combination of all of these. It all began in 1994, when farmer Li Yinfang broke open a slab of rock in the Province of Liaoning in northeastern China. He was amazed to find the complete skeleton of a long-tailed turkey sized animal appeared. He knew he had discovered something very important. This exciting new species was first reported by Ji and Ji in 1996, then received further studies by Chen, Dong and Zhen in 1998 and Currie and Chen in 2001.Sinosauropteryx is important not only because of its integument, but also because it is a basal coelurosaur and represents an important stage in theropod evolution that is poorly understood. Sinosauropteryx has the longest tail of any known theropod, and a three-fingered hand dominated by the first finger, which is longer and thicker than either of the bones of the forearm. It also has a thick coat of feather-like structures, which seem to be simple branching structures. One specimen of Sinosauropteryx also preserves stomach contents, and a pair of eggs in the abdomen. The area of Liaoning Province where Sinosauropteryx was found is extremely rich in 140 million year old fossils. By studying fossil sites we know what animals and plants existed at the same period in time as Sinosauropteryx. This information allows us to write the story you are about to read. Three complete skeletons of Sinosauropteryx have been found, including unlaid eggs and some internal organs. It was a meat-eater as one specimen had the jawbone of a mammal in its stomach. The jawbone was not enough to identify the mammal.
Theropoda: Maniraptora: Troodontidae : Early Cretaceous
Locality: Asia
Length: 0.96 meters
Height: 0.42 metersRare species of troodontid from Asia. This particular specimen shares many traits with birds, which is common among troodontids and other raptors. The vicious claws, teeth, and running legs typical of raptors are seen combined with the light bones, wing-like arms and furcula (wishbone) seen in birds

Artist’s restoration of the giant theropod Spinosaurus.

SPINOSAURUS Spinosaurus

Pic Credit: Arthur Weasley
Spinosaurus.// . The biggest predator ever to walk the earth. Cretaceous North Africa.

Spinosaurus (meaning “spine lizard”) is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the Albian to early Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous Period, about 95 to 93 million years ago. This genus was first known from Egyptian remains discovered in the 1910s and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer. These original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional skull material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the described fossils. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S. marocannus, has been recovered from Morocco.The distinctive “spines” of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae, grew up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure, although some authors have suggested that they were covered in muscle and formed a hump or ridge. Multiple functions have been put forward for this structure, including thermoregulation and display. According to recent estimates, Spinosaurus is the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, even larger than Tyrannosaurus rex and Giganotosaurus. These estimates suggest that it was around 16 to 18 meters in length (52.5 to 59.1 ft) and 9 tonnes (9.9 tons) in weight, although these figures have not been universally accepted.Although Spinosaurus is well-known to dinosaur enthusiasts due to its size, sail, and elongated skull, it is mostly known from remains that have been destroyed, aside from a few more recently discovered teeth and skull elements. Additionally, so far only the skull and backbone have been described in detail, and limb bones have not been found. Jaw and skull material published in 2005 show that it had one of the longest skulls of any carnivorous dinosaur, estimated at about 1.75 meters long (5.75 ft). The skull had a narrow snout filled with straight conical teeth that lacked serrations. There were six or seven teeth on each side of the very front of the upper jaw, in the premaxilla bones, and another twelve in both maxillae behind them. The second and third teeth on each side were noticeably larger than the rest of the teeth in the premaxilla, creating a space between them and the large teeth in the anterior maxilla; large teeth in the lower jaw faced this space. The very tip of the snout holding those few large anterior teeth was expanded, and a small crest was present in front of the eyes.The sail of Spinosaurus was formed of very tall neural spines growing on the back vertebrae. These spines were seven to eleven times the height of the vertebrae from which they grew. The spines were slightly longer front to back at the base than higher up, and were unlike the thin rods seen in the pelycosaur finbacks Edaphosaurus and Dimetrodon.Spinosaurus gives its name to a family of dinosaurs, the Spinosauridae, of which other members include Baryonyx from southern England, Irritator and Angaturama (which is probably synonymous with Irritator) from Brazil, Suchomimus from Niger in central Africa, and possibly Siamosaurus, which is known from fragmentary remains in Thailand. Spinosaurus is closest to Irritator, which shares its unserrated straight teeth, and the two are included in the subfamily Spinosaurinae. In 2003, Oliver Rauhut suggested that Stromer’s Spinosaurus holotype was a chimera, composed of back vertebrae from a carcharodontosaurid similar to Acrocanthosaurus and a dentary from a large theropod similar to Baryonyx. This analysis, however, has been rejected in recent papers.The first described remains of Spinosaurus were found in the Bahariya Valley of Egypt in 1912, and were named by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. Fragmentary additional remains from Bahariya, including vertebrae and hindlimb bones, were designated by Stromer as “Spinosaurus B” in 1934. Stromer considered them different enough to belong to another species, and this has been borne out; with the advantage of more expeditions and material, it appears that they either pertain to Carcharodontosaurus or to Sigilmassasaurus. Some of the Spinosaurus fossils were damaged during transport back to the Deutsches Museum, in Munich, Germany, and the remaining bones were completely lost due to Allied bombing in 1944. Two species of Spinosaurus have been named: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus (meaning “Egyptian spine lizard”) and Spinosaurus marocannus (meaning “Moroccan spine lizard”). S. marocannus was originally described by Dale Russell as a new species based on the length of its neck vertebrae.[8] Later authors have been split on this topic, some considering the length of the vertebrae to be variable from individual to individual and therefore regarding S. marocannus as invalid or a synonym of S. aegyptiacus, and others retaining it as valid.Copyright © 2007 Answers CorporationSpinosaurusThe imposing dinosaur’s most unusual feature was its large sail. Whenever Spinosaurus would arch its back, the sail, made of lengthy spines covered with skin, would rise into the air. The sail alone was the height of a man. No one really knows the reason for having a sail on it’s back, but it’s felt it may have helped to cool the dinosaur, in hot weather. As the wind blew across the sail, it would cool it down, in the same way that holding your hand in the wind, will cool that down. A large body would have a smaller surface area (per weight ratio), and therefore would hold in heat, whereas the sail would allow it to literally “blow away” with the wind.Spinosaurus ate smaller dinosaurs, and possibly fished in rivers, in much the same way as Grizzly Bears do, by snatching fish from rivers. Spinosaurus had what was arguably the longest head of any known carnivorous dinosaur. Measuring close to 6 feet in length, the head featured a narrow snout — all the better for showcasing its straight teeth.No other dinosaurs would pose a threat to spinosaurus, due to his size, as well as his very scary appearance.

spinosaurus skull 

630px-Spinosaurus-skull-en_svg

Giganotosaurus-graph

SUCHOMIMUS 

Pic  by Dinosauricon

suchomimus

Suchomimus (crocodile mimic), a relative of Spinosaurus, appears to be specialized in catching fish, and has teeth of the same kind and arrangement as modern crocodiles.
Suchomimuswas a large, spinosaurid dinosaur with a crocodile-like mouth that lived 110 to 120 million years ago, during the middle portion of the Cretaceous period in Africa.Characteristics and environment
Unlike most giant theropods, Suchomimus had a very long, low snout and narrow jaws studded with some 100 teeth, not very sharp and curving slightly backward. The tip of the snout was enlarged and carried a “rosette” of longer teeth. The animal is reminiscent of crocodilians that eat mainly fish, such as the living gharial, a type of large crocodile with a very long, slim snout, from the region of India.Suchomimus also had a tall extension of its vertebrae which may have held up some kind of low flap, ridge or sail of skin, as seen in much more exaggerated form in Spinosaurus. Detailed study shows that the specimen of Suchomimus was a subadult about 11 m (36 ft) in length, but scientists think that it may have grown to about the same size as Tyrannosaurus, about 12 m (40 ft) long. The overall impression is of a massive and powerful creature that ate fish and meat more than 100 million years ago, when the Sahara was a lush, swampy habitat.Suchomimus has been placed among the spinosaurs, a group of predators. Apart from the back ridge, Suchomimus was very similar to Baryonyx which also had strong forelimbs and a huge sickle-curved claw on its “thumb”. And, as with Baryonyx, the claw was the first fossil part to be noticed by palaeontologists. Suchomimus was considerably larger than Baryonyx, but the latter might almost have been a juvenile of the former.Suborder:Theropoda
Family:Spinosauridae
Genus:Suchomimus
Species: S. tenerensisBinomial name: Suchomimus tenerensis
After discovering a new specimens of Carcharodontosaurus and the Sarcosuchus, Chicago-based palaeontologist Paul Sereno and his team added a discovery in 1997. In the Sahara, near the Tenere Desert in Niger, they found fossils that represented about two-thirds of the skeleton of a huge meat-eater. This was named Suchomimus (“crocodile mimic”) after the shape of its head.

Pic by M Shiraishi

Stegoceras (‘horned roof’ – Greek stego- meaning ‘roof’ and ceras- meaning ‘horn’) was a plant-eating ornithischian pachycephalosaurid dinosaur that lived in what is now North America during the Late Cretaceous Period. It had an estimated length of up to 2 metres (6.5 feet). It was named by Lawrence Lambe, in 1902.

It has served as a model for other pachycephalosaurs, due to the completeness of the excavated remains. When discovered, it was believed to be related to Troodon. This theory was, however, dispelled upon discovery of the domed skull.

Anatomy

Stegoceras sported a three inch-thick skull. It was initially proposed that male Stegoceras (and individuals of other pachycephalosaurid species) would ram each other headlong, not unlike contemporary bighorn sheep or musk oxen. It was later suggested that they engaged in flank-butting rather than ramming, a widely evidenced theory. Foremost, the rounded shape of the skull roof would lessen the contacted surface area during head-butting, resulting in glancing blows. Second, pachycephalosaurs could not align their head, neck, and body perfectly horizontally straight (which would be needed to transmit stress) — it was more likely that they carried their neck in an “S”- or “U”-shaped curve (Stegoceras seemed to carry their spine in a less extreme curve, due to their thick neck muscles). Lastly, the relatively wide width of most pachycephalosaurs would have served to protect vital organs from harm during flank-butting.

When a partial skeleton of Stegoceras was first discovered, it was thought to have gastralia, or belly ribs, not typically found in other ornithischian dinosaurs. They were subsequently found to be ossified tendons.

Copyright © 2008 Answers Corporation

Stegoceras June 27, 2011

Filed under: Pachycephalosauria —
An adult male Stegoceras would have fought fiercely with another for control of the herd. Although quite small, Stegoceras was a tough creature. A bipedal herbivore, Stegoceras was a member of an unusual group, the pachycephalosaurs (‘thick-headed reptiles’).
This is the best known of the pachycephalosaurids, with dozens of skull fragments known and also a partial skeleton. The structure of the bone in the head dome was such that the bone fibres aligned to absorb impact from the top. The vertebrae of the neck and back were very strong, lashed together with strong tendons that prevented twisting, and aligned to absorb shocks emanating from the head end. The hips were particularly wide and solid. All this is consistent with the idea that the dome was used as a weapon, like a battering ram.
Factbox
Name: Stegoceras, meaning ‘roof horn’
Size: 2.5-3m long and 1.5m high
Food: plants and ferns
Lived: 75 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period in North America
Pachycephalosaurs had one special feature in common – a thick, rounded skull. On Stegoceras’ head was a semicircle of small bony lumps. These bumps ran above its eyes and around the back of its neck. Experts are not certain what the lumps were for, but they could have been used in flank-butting, a widely evidenced theory. The skull was not very thick when Stegoceras was born, but it became thicker as the dinosaur got older.
Some experts believe that they have discovered examples of both male and female Stegoceras. They have found that some skulls are thicker than others and believe that these thick skulls may have belonged to the males. A male Stegoceras could have a skull up to 6cm thick – which is half as thick as a brick.
It was initially proposed that male Stegoceras (and individuals of other pachycephalosaur species) would ram each other headlong, not unlike contemporary bighorn sheep or musk oxen. It was later suggested that they engaged in flank-butting rather than ramming, a theory for which there is a great deal of evidence. Foremost, the rounded shape of the skull roof would lessen the contacted surface area during headbutting, resulting in glancing blows. Second, pachycephalosaurs would not have been able to align their head, neck and body in a perfect horizontal line (which would be needed to transmit stress) – it was more likely that they carried their neck in an S- or U-shaped curve (this to a lesser extent in Stegoceras, due to their thick neck muscles). Lastly, the relatively large width of most pachycephalosaurs would have served to protect vital organs from harm during flank-butting.
For most of the time, Stegoceras was a peaceful herbivore. It moved through the Late Cretaceous vegetation, pulling leaves and flowers from trees and low-lying plants with its beaked mouth. Its teeth were sharp and serrated like a saw. Stegoceras used them to shred leaves and plants, rather like modern goats.
The dome on the head of Stegoceras is high, but not as high as that of others in the group, and is surrounded by a frill of little horns and knobs. The teeth at the front of the jaw are very widely set and the muzzle is broad compared with other pachycephalosaurids. This may indicate a less selective feeding strategy. The very broad hips suggest that the pachycephalosaurids gave birth to live young (this is not widely accepted).

Stegosaurs Stegosaurus

   

Stegosaurus skull

head was about the same size as the head of a large dog
Stegosaurus is een dinosauriër behorend tot de Stegosauria, een groep herbivore Ornithischia uit de groep van de Thyreophoradie in het Jura haar hoogtepunt bereikte. Stegosaurus leefde tijdens het Late Jura (Kimmeridgien-Tithonien) in Noord-Amerika.Stegosaurus was acht tot negen meter lang en 2.5-3 meter hoog. Stegosaurus was een vierbenige dinosauriër, hoewel de rechte achterpoten veel langer zijn dan de wat naar achteren gebogen voorpoten. Ondanks zijn grote formaat was daarom de kop niet eens zo ver van de grond, wellicht ongeveer 1,5 meter, maar niet zo laag als oudere illustraties vaak aangaven. Mogelijk kon Stegosaurus zich op de achterpoten opheffen om hoger gelegen vegetatie te bereiken; discussie hierover is nog steeds gaande.De tanden waren opvallend klein, en de kaak was zo gebouwd dat deze geen kauwfunctie kan hebben gehad. Het voedsel werd wellicht vermalen door maagstenen. Ook de kop en schedel zijn zeer klein – van de twee of drie ton gewicht werd nog geen honderd gram door de hersenen ingenomen.Resten van Stegosaurus worden vaak van meerdere individuen bij elkaar aangetroffen, wat doet vermoeden dat ze in kudden leefden.Het meest opvallende kenmerk van de stegosauriërs is een lange rij van benige platen of stekels die over de gehele rug van het dier liep; Stegosaurus, het bekendste lid en naamgever van de groep, heeft zeer grote rugplaten.Hoewel beroemd, zijn de beenplaten van Stegosaurus nog steeds met raadselen omgeven. Zo weet men nog altijd niet zeker hoe ze over de rug verdeeld waren. Mogelijk was er een rij van platen, die afwisselend naar links en naar rechts gericht stonden. Het is echter ook mogelijk dat er twee hetzij parallelle hetzij alternerende rijen platen waren. De reden dat dit nog niet definitief vastgesteld is, is dat de platen niet met de rest van het skelet verbonden waren, en dus gedurende het fossilisatieproces meestal sterk verschuiven zodat hun oorspronkelijke positie slechts zeer globaal uit hun vondstpositie valt af te lezen. De laatste vondsten wijzen er sterk op dat de theorie dat de platen afwisselend links en rechts stonden, de juiste is.Ook de functie van de platen is nog niet geheel opgehelderd. De meest voor de hand liggende reden is ter verdediging, en de vier stekels op de staart, de “Thagomizer”, hebben ongetwijfeld deze functie gehad, maar of dit ook voor de platen op nek en rug gold, is nog maar de vraag. Ze lijken daarvoor niet de meest geschikte vorm te hebben. Othniel Charles Marsh, die het geslacht in 1877 benoemde, dacht dat de platen plat op het lichaam lagen — vandaar de naam: “dakreptiel” — maar daar werd al snel vanaf gestapt. Als de platen scherpe hoornen randen droegen waren ze een fysieke belemmering voor een aanval op de rug. Bob Bakker dacht dat de platen zelfs beweegbaar waren en verlaagd konden worden tot een horizontale stand, zodat ze een schaarbeweging naar een aanvaller konden maken als het dier die met de staartstekels probeerde te raken. Aanpassingen voor zo’n functie zijn echter niet gevonden. Een sterke aanwijzing voor een althans oorspronkelijke verdedigende functie wordt wel gezien in het feit dat kleinere soorten stegosauriërs in dezelfde positie stekels hadden. Bij grote dieren zouden die te ver uiteen staan om een aanval te blokkeren en dat zou dan de evolutie tot een plattere vorm veroorzaakt hebben.Een andere mogelijkheid is dat ze dienden voor temperatuurregeling: als het dier moest afkoelen, leverden de platen een groot oppervlak, en konden zo gemakkelijk warmte afgeven. Als het buiten het warmst was, tijdens het middaguur, was de smalle bovenkant van de platen op de zon gericht. Een aanwijzing dat deze theorie juist is, is dat de platen klaarblijkelijk goed doorbloed waren, waardoor surpluswarmte uit de rest van het lichaam snel naar de platen overgebracht kon worden. Het is onvermijdelijk dat de platen een zeker effect op de temperatuurhuishouding hadden. Er werden windtunnelproeven uitgevoerd die aantoonden dat de ruitvorm zeer geschikt is voor het veroorzaken van meer turbulentie wat de warmte-uitwisseling weer ten goede zou komen. Stegosaurus was de grootste bekende stegosauriër en grotere dieren hebben door hun absolute oppervlakte-inhoud-verhouding meer moeite warmte af te staan. Daar staat tegenover dat ze juist door hun grotere massa minder snel opwarmen wat dit probleem weer compenseert.Een andere mogelijkheid is dat de platen dienden om het dier groter te laten lijken dan het in werkelijkheid was ter afschrikking van roofdieren, zoals Allosaurus, een tijdgenoot die in dezelfde lagen gevonden wordt.
First Record of Stegosaur Dinosaur Tracks in the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian) of Europe Jun 30,
(Collected by Neal for group ffd2009 )
Link:
http://www.mnhn.fr/museum/front/medias/publication/44522_g2012n2a4.pdf

Stegosaurus May 14, 2011

Filed under: Thyreophorathyreophora
One spike of its spiked tail and Stegosaurus could cripple any predator that threatened it.
Stegosaurus had a small head, a thick, clumsy body and a spiky tail. Along its back were two rows of bony, diamond-shaped plates. Although it looked fierce, Stegosaurus ate mainly low-growing ferns and other plants. It lived in herds that grazed together.
Although S. armatus was the first Stegosaurus species to be found, S. stenops, found by Othniel Charles Marsh, is the more familiar species.

Factbox
Name: Stegosaurus, meaning ‘roof lizard’
Size: 7.5-9m long and 4m high
Food: low-growing ferns and other plants
Lived: about 140 million years ago in the Late Jurassic Period in North America

As well as the plates that Stegosaurus has along its back, it also has two pairs of spikes on the end of its tail to use as weapons. Recent studies show that these spikes stick out sideways. A mass of little bony ossicles protect the throat. The brain is the smallest, when compared with the bulk of the animal, for any dinosaur.
This dinosaur’s tail was long and used for balance, having very short front legs and much shorter back ones to support the weight of its body. It moved on all four legs, stumping heavily along. It could not walk or run very fast and was preyed on by fast-running, carnivorous dinosaurs, such as Allosaurus.
Its small head, which was about the size of a large dog’s, was close to the ground so Stegosaurus grazed mainly on low-growing plants. It had a weak jaw, and could chew only soft, leafy food.
Stegosaurus‘ spiky tail that was very thick and powerful, with bony plates all the way down. Stegosaurus may have used its tail to defend itself, and its young, against any carnivorous dinosaur which came within range.
The back plates were once thought to have been paired, but are now believed to have been in an alternating double row, with the largest plates at the hips, tapering in size towards the head. They may have been covered in horn and used for defence, or covered in skin and used as heat radiators.
Scientists have also suggested that the plates on Stegosaurus’ back may have been very brightly coloured. So the males probably used the plates to warn off other males in the herd and to attract the females at the start of the mating season.

STEGOSAURUS STENOPS

 

Jura Ornitischia Herbivoor Lengte:10m

Stegosaurus dankt zijn naam aan de beenplaten die langs zijn ruggengraat in zijn huid gehecht waren. Die waren zo breekbaar dat hij ze niet als verdedigingswapen kon gebruiken, wat hij wel deed met de vier beenstekels op zijn staart. Maar waarvoor dienden die rugplaten dan wel? Dat is nog niet helemaal zeker geweten. Ze waren in ieder geval bedekt met heel veel kleine bloedvaten en een dunne huid. Wanneer de bloedvaten zich met bloed vulden, zag je mogelijk een rode kleur doorheen de huid. Stegosaurus kon zijn platen zo laten ‘blozen’. Misschien kon hij via zijn platen warmte kwijtraken (Wanneer krijg jij rode kaken? Als je het te warm hebt!). Sommige wetenschappers denken dat de Stegozijn rode platen deed blozen om vijanden bang te maken of wijfjes te lokken. Word jij soms rood wanneer je boos of verliefd bent?
Deze dino leefde 150-135 miljoen jaar geleden. Paleontologen vonden hem in de VS.

KBIN

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Infraorde Stegosauria

Chialingosaurus

Huayangosaurus, een meer basale stegosauride

Een mogelijke stamboom van de Stegosauria vind je op

Stegosaurus (Greek for “roof lizard”);

Woodlands of western North America /Late Jurassic (150 million years ago) About 20 feet long and 2 tons

Double rows of plates extending from back; spiked tail; unusually small head

Stegosaurus was a large, ponderous, plant-eating dinosaur that lived in the environs of North America during the late Jurassic period (about 150 million years ago). What made this herbivore (and other stegosaurs like it) especially striking were the double rows of large, bony plates jutting out of its back. No one is quite sure why Stegosaurus had these plates: they may have evolved for defensive purposes (there were lots of hungry tyrannosaurs and other large theropods roaming the woodlands of North America), or they may have served to dissipate heat from this dinosaur’s body, roughly the same function of an elephant’s floppy ears.

Besides its plates, what set Stegosaurus apart from other herbivorous dinosaurs was its unusually small, walnut-sized brain, which prompted one paleontologist to speculate that it had a supplementary brain in its butt.
Since Stegosaurus was one of the earliest dinosaurs to be discovered (the first fossils of this genus were unearthed way back in 1877), this led to the popular misconception that all dinosaurs were nature’s D students.Recently, though, scientists have come to the conclusion that at least some dinosaurs (but not Stegosaurus) may have been fairly smart, at least by Jurassic standards.

The most famous of the stegosaurs–the spiked, plated dinosaurs–Stegosaurus had much in common with the equally influential Ankylosaurus, especially as regards its unusually small brain.

So dimwitted was Stegosaurus that paleontologists once speculated that it harbored a second brain in its posterior, one of the field’s more spectacular blunders.

1. Stegosaurus had a brain the size of a walnut. The four-ton Stegosaurus was equipped with an unusually small brain, only about the size of a dog’s. It was once proposed that this none-too-bright herbivore had supplementary grey matter located in its hip region, but paleontologists quickly soured on this “brain in the butt” theory.

2. No one knows why Stegosaurus had plates…Did Stegosaurus evolve its thin, tough, roughly triangular plates as a form of defense against larger predators? Were they a sexually selectedcharacteristic, meaning males with bigger plates had a better chance of mating with females? Or could they have been used to regulate this dinosaur’sbody temperature? It’s still a mystery.

3. …or exactly how these plates were arranged along its back.The name Stegosaurus means “roofed lizard,” reflecting the belief of 19th-century paleontologists that this dinosaur’s plates lay flat along its back. Various reconstructions have been offered since then, the most convincing of which has the plates alternating in parallel rows (and facing pointy side up) along Stegosaurus’ spine.

4. Stegosaurus’ spiked tail is called a “thagomizer.”Way back in 1982, a famous Far Side cartoon showed a group of cavemen clustered around a picture of a Stegosaurus’ tail; one of them points to the sharp spikes and says, “Now this end is called the thagomizer…after the late Thag Simmons.” The word “thagomizer” has been used by paleontologists ever since. (Did Stegosaurus wield its thagomizer in battles againstAllosaurus? Read this article to find out!)

5. Most stegosaurs hailed from Asia, not North America.Although it’s by far the most famous, Stegosaurus wasn’t the only spiked, plated dinosaur of ancient times. Remains of these reptiles have been found all over the world, with a large concentration in Asia–hence the odd-sounding genera Chialingosaurus, Chungkingosaurusand Tuojiangosaurus.

6. It was once thought that Stegosaurus walked on two legs.Because it was discovered such a long time ago, Stegosaurus is the poster-lizard for wacky dinosaur theories. Paleontologists once thought this plant-eater was bipedal, like Tyrannosaurus Rex; even today, some experts argue that it was occasionally capable of rearing back on its two hind feet.

7. Stegosaurus supplemented its diet with rocks.Like many herbivorous dinosaurs, Stegosaurus swallowed small rocks (known as gastroliths) that helped mash the tough vegetable matter in its enormous stomach. Of course, it’s also possible that Stegosaurus swallowed rocks because it had a brain the size of walnut; who knows?

8. Stegosaurus is the state dinosaur of Colorado.Back in 1982 (around the same time Gary Larson was coining the word “thagomizer”), the governor of Colorado signed a bill making Stegosaurus the official state dinosaur, after a two-year write-in campaign by thousands of fourth-grade students. (By the way, Colorado was partially submerged in water back in Mesozoic times.)

9. Unlike most dinosaurs, Stegosaurus had cheeks.Although it had a tiny brain, Stegosaurus did sport one relatively advanced feature: based on an analysis of its teeth, experts believe this dinosaur may have had cheeks. Why were cheeks so important? Well, they gave Stegosaurus room to chew and pre-digest its food, and also allowed it to store more food than non-cheeked dinosaurs.

10. Stegosaurus was closely related to Ankylosaurus.Back in the Cretaceous period, stegosaurs (plated, spiked dinosaurs) were first cousins of ankylosaurs (armored dinosaurs), both grouped under the larger classification of “thyreophorans” (Greek for “shield bearers).

Like Stegosaurus, Ankylosaurus was a four-footed herbivore, and even less appetizing to ravenous raptors.

Gallery of Stegosaurus pictures.

Miragaira longicollum

http://dinogoss.blogspot.com/2009/02/miragaia-so-long-stegosaur.html

Early sketch of a Struthiomimus.

Stygimoloch (“river devil”)
was a pachycephalosaurid that lived during the Cretaceous Period between 68-65 million years ago in what is now North America. This dinosaur measured about 10 feet long and bore a thick skull that was decorated with six large spikes that covered the top rim of its head. This may have served the dinosaur as a display of recognition, helping the dinosaur to identify its companions. This dinosaur was a plant-eater and it lived in herds for protection from predators such as Tyrannosaurus, Dromaeosaurus, and Gorgosaurus. Males would often challenge one another to battle, either for females with which to mate, or for supremacy in the herd. It was previously thought that, like goats, they would butt heads with each other until one weakened and backed off, leaving the victor to choose a female or to lead a herd. However, the lack of apparent cranial damage exhibited by recent fossil discoveries has given rise to the hypothesis that they did not actually butt heads with other members of the herd. Some conjecture that stygimoloch headbutted other dinosaurs in their much softer underbelly regions, as a measure of self-defense against predation.
© 2007 Answers Corporation

Stygimoloch May 14, 2011

Filed under: Pachycephalosauria
Stygimoloch’s tough, bony skull was thought to have protected its brain during its amazing headbutting fights. This hypothesis has been disputed in recent years.
Stygimoloch lived in herds and grazed in woodland areas. It had short front legs, but far longer back legs. It also had a lengthy tail which it held level with its body when running. On its head were prominent horns. These were originally thought to have functioned solely for show and not used as weapons.
The name of this pachycephalosaur derives from its frightful appearance. Moloch was a horned devil in Hebrew mythology, and in Greek legends the river Styx was the river that the dead had to cross to reach the underworld. The fossils were found in the Hell Creek formation in Montana, and this was a further inspiration for the name. The first Stygimoloch horn core was found in 1896 and regarded as part of aTriceratops skull. In the 1940s, when pachycephalosaurs were recognized, it was classed as a species of Pachycephalosaurus.Factbox
Name: Stygimoloch, meaning ‘horned devil from the river of death’
Size: 3m long
Food: plants
Lived: about 70 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period in North America
The most obvious feature of Stygimoloch is the array of horns projecting from the rim of the dome. The head is quite long and the dome is high, narrow and thin. From the front, this presents a startling apparition of ornamentation, with long horns surrounded by clusters of more stubby spikes, that would evidently have been very effective as a threat or defence display, very much like those of some of the horned ceratopsians.
Unlike other pachycephalosaurs, the domed skull is relatively small, slightly flattened from side to side, and pear-shaped; even when isolated this unusual dome can easily be distinguished from the broader, larger domes of Pachycephalosaurus. While the dome is reduced in size, the ornamentation over the skull is more elaborate than in any other pachycephalosaur. Short, conical hornlets covered the nose, and the back corners of the skull bore an enormous pair of massive, backward-pointing spikes, up to 5cm in diameter and 15 cm long; these are surrounded by two or three smaller spikes. The function of this unusual ornamentation is unknown. Even if other pachycephalosaurs did butt heads (which is a subject of continuing debate), the small dome of Stygimoloch suggests that this behaviour was not as important. Instead, the skull ornament might have functioned for display, may have been used for self-defence, or perhaps were locked together and used in shoving matches, like the horns of deer. More likely, however, is that the squamosal horns were used to inflict pain during flank-butting.
Stygimoloch is known mostly from the skull. There have been five partial skulls found, but there have been other parts of the skeleton found in remains from North and South Dakota, USA.

UPDATE  = Pachycephalosaurus, Stygimoloch, and Dracorex.
These were bipedal ornithischian dinosaurs that had hard bony domes on their heads, often complemented with an array of spikes

Dracorex was small with a relatively flat head with small spikes,
Stygimoloch was mid-sized with a small bony dome and huge horns,
and Pachycephalosaurus was large with a large bony dome and relatively small horns.

Together these dinosaurs appear to represent a growth series from juvenile to adult, all grouped together as Pachycephalosaurus, and the evidence can be found in the makeup of the bones.

http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/dinosaur/2009/10/bone-headed-dinosaurs-reshaped-their-skulls/

Image Copyright / Dinosaur Society
styracosaurus.jpg
Styracosaurus was a dinosaur that walked on four short legs. This large plant-eater had a six-spiked frill projecting from the back of its skull. It also had an upward-pointing horn on its nose (2 feet (60 cm) long and 6 inches (15 cm) wide), and two small horns above its eyes. These spikes and the horn probably provided protection from predators, and were possibly used in mating rituals and rivalry. It had a short, thick, pointed tail, a large, bulky body, a large skull and a beak. Styracosaurus hatched from eggs. Styracosaurus was about 18 feet (5 m) long, 6 feet (1.8 m) tall, and weighed up to 3 tons.WHEN STYRACOSAURUS LIVEDStyracosaurus lived in the late Cretaceous period, about 77-70 million years ago. It was among the last of the dinosaur species to evolve before the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction 65 million years ago. Among the contemporaries of Styracosaurus were Tyrannosaurus rex, Ankylosaurus (an armored herbivore), Corythosaurus (a crested dinosaur), and Dryptosaurus (a meat-eating dinosaur).BEHAVIORStyracosaurus may have been a herding animal, like some other ceratopsians. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of bone beds, large deposits of bones of the same species in an area. Styracosaurus hatched from eggs, and the young may have been cared for by parents. When threatened by predators, Styracosaurus may have charged into its enemy like a modern-day rhinoceros does. This would have been a very effective defense.DISCOVERY OF FOSSILSStyracosaurus was named in 1913 by L. M. Lambe from a fossil found near Alberta, Canada. Fossils have been found in the USA and Canada. A bonebed of about 100 Styracosaurus fossils was found in Arizona, USA, indicating that they travelled in herds.CLASSIFICATIONStyracosaurus was a late ornithischian dinosaur, the order of bird-hipped, herbivorous dinosaurs. It was a member of the suborder Marginocephalia, and of the family of large, horned, frilled, herding herbivores, the ceratopsians. The ceratopsians were one of the last major groups of dinosaurs to evolve, and include Psittacosaurus, Leptoceratops, Pachyrhinosaurus, Montanoceratops, Chasmosaurus, Centrosaurus, Triceratops, Styracosaurus, Protoceratops, and others.Text Copyright ©1996-2007 EnchantedLearning.comStyracosaurus albertensis (“speerpuntreptiel”) was een viervoetige herbivore dinosauriër behorend tot de groep van de Ceratopidae en meer bepaald de Centrosaurinae met een lengte tot 5,5 meter en een gewicht van drie ton. Deze dinosauriër leefde zo’n 75 miljoen jaar geleden in het Laat-Krijt (Campanien). Restanten van Styracosaurus zijn gevonden in Alberta (Canada) en Montana (VS).De soort is in 1913 beschreven door Lawrence Lambe opbasis van een vondst door Charles Mortram Sternberg. Er zijn nog twee andere soorten beschreven: S. parksi en S. ovatus, maar het is zeer de vraag of dit werkelijk aparte vormen zijn.Net zoals andere ceratopiërs had Styracosaurus hoorns en een nekschild. Zijn geslachtsnaam vindt oorsprong in de zes naar achter gerichte stekels die zich op de achterzijde van het nekschild bevonden. Deze stekels hadden misschien tot doel de kwetsbare nekstreek te beschermen in geval van een aanval, of ze dienden voor het soortonderscheid of onderlinge dreiging. De soortaanduiding verwijst naar Alberta
While the estimated length of 34 meters and mass estimate of 36-40 tonnes is smaller than some of the more sensational numbers that have been floated in popular books (and of course the internet), we suggested in our paper that many of those estimates were, shall we say… extravagant. Supersaurus appears to be close to the longest animal whose length can be reliably estimated (read: not counting Amphiceolias fragilimus), though it was lighter than the giant titanosaurs.
http://skeletaldrawing.blogspot.com/2012/04/yup-ok-apatosaurus-is-freakin-huge.html

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dinosaurs

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