DINOSAURICON K


K

  • Kaatedocus   Kaatedocus  /  A new taxon of diplodocid sauropod Kaatedocus siberi gen. et sp. nov., Kaatedocus siberi gen. et sp. nov., is recognized based on well-preserved cervical vertebrae and skull from the Morrison Formation (Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic) of northern Wyoming, USA. A phylogenetic analysis places it inside Diplodocinae (Sauropoda, Flagellicaudata), as a sister taxon to a clade uniting Tornieria africana and the classical diplodocines Barosaurus lentus and Diplodocus. The taxon is diagnosed by a unique combination of plesiomorphic and derived traits, as well as the following unambiguous autapomorphies within Diplodocidae: frontal separated anteriorly by a U-shaped notch; squamosals restricted to the post-orbital region; presence of a postorbital foramen, a narrow sharp and distinct sagittal nuchal crest; the paired basal tuber with a straight anterior edge in ventral view; anterior end of the prezygapophyses of mid- and posterior cervical vertebrae is often an anterior extension of the pre-epipophysis, which projects considerably anterior to the articular facet; anterodorsal corner of the lateral side of the posterior cervical vertebrae marked by a rugose tuberosity; posterior margin of the prezygapophysial articular facet of posterior margin of the prezygapophysial articular facet of posterior cervical vertebrae bordered posteriorly by conspicuous transverse sulcus; posterior cervical neural spines parallel to converging. The inclusion of K. siberi and several newly described characters into a previously published phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as basal diplodocine, which concurs well with the low stratigraphical position of the holotype specimen. Dinheirosaurus and Supersaurus now represent the sister clade to Apatosaurus and Diplodocinae and therefore the most basal diplodocid genera. The geological location in the less known northern parts of the Morrison Kimmeridgian Fm., whereas K. siberi was found, corroborates previous hypotheses on faunal provinces within the formation. The probable subadult ontogenetic stage of the holotype specimens allows analysis of ontogenetic changes and their influence on diplodocid phylogeny.

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Kaatedocus-siberi-ii

http://dinosaurs.wikia.com/wiki/Kaatedocus

Kentrosaurus


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Berlin_Naturkundemuseum_Dino_Eingangshalle.jpg/800px-Berlin_Naturkundemuseum_Dino_Eingangshalle.jpg

kentrosaurus aethiopicus.

http://ombdinotopia.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=dinotopia&action=display&thread=360&page=10

January 30, 2012   Filed under: Thyreophora

A sharp spike on each shoulder of this dinosaur gave it extra protection from large predators. Kentrosaurus grazed on low-growing plants with its small head close to the ground. It walked on four chunky legs that carried its heavy body. Kentrosaurus lived at the same time asStegosaurus, but was only about a quarter of its size.

Factbox //Name: Kentrosaurus, meaning ‘pointed lizard’ Size: 2.5m long and about 1m high Food: low-growing plants Lived: 150-140 million years ago in the Late Jurassic Period in Tanzania, East Africa

The nine pairs of plates on the neck and back are very much narrower than those of Stegosaurus, and the five pairs of spines run in a double row right down the tail. Near the front of its back, the spikes were quite flat. They became more narrow and pointed from its middle to the end of its tail. Another pair of spines projects sideways from the shoulders.

Unlike more advanced stegosaurs, it seems Kentrosaurus did not have ossicles across its body embedded in the skin. Kentrosaurus may have used its sharp spikes to defend itself rather like today’s porcupines do. The little skull contains a tiny brain with well-developed olfactory bulbs. This suggests Kentrosaurus had a very good sense of smell, which would have aided food gathering.

Kentrosaurus lived among some of the largest dinosaurs, the gigantic Giraffatitan and Dicraeosaurus, in what is now Tanzania, East Africa.

This stegosaur was excavated between 1909 and 1912 from the Tendaguru site by a team from Germany. Several hundred Kentrosaurusbones were found, suggesting that something like 70 individuals died there. The group find suggests that it may have been a herding animal. Two mounted skeletons were prepared for the Humboldt Museum in Berlin, Germany, but one was destroyed by bombing during World War II.

Kentrosaurus aethiopicus was een ornithischische dinosauriër behorend tot de de groep van de Stegosauria die tijdens het Late Jura, zo’n 155 miljoen jaar geleden, leefde in Afrika.
Hij had een lengte van vijf meter. In tegenstelling tot Stegosaurus had hij maar tot aan het midden van zijn rug een zevental paar platen; deze waren smal en klein. Daarachter kwamen vijf paar scherpe stekels, uitmondend in een paar “thagomizer” stekels aan het eind van de staart. Dit wordt wel gezien als een aanwijzing dat in ieder geval de oorspronkelijke functie van de ruguitsteeksels bij de stegosauriërs een verdedigende was.
Fossielen van Kentrosaurus werden gevonden tijdens de Duitse expeditie naar de Tendaguru-vindplaats in het toenmalige Duits Oost-Afrika, het huidige Tanzania. Een opgesteld skelet in Berlijn is door een bombardement verloren gegaan. De soort werd in 1915 beschreven door Hennig. Kentrosaurus betekent “stekelig reptiel”; de soortaanduiding verwijst naar de Afrikaanse afkomst: met Aethiopia werd in het Klassieke Grieks heel Afrika aangeduid.

http://dinosaurpalaeo.wordpress.com/2014/06/10/a-digital-dino-bone/

 

kentrosaurus bone

 

 

 
Kileskus 534251459
kileskus-large-990x456
  An outline of the tyrannosauroid Kileskus, showing known parts in dark grey. Art by Conty, image from Wikipedia.
Holotype (ZIN PH 5/117) of Kileskus aristotocus. From Averianov et al., 2010. Scale bar is 3 cm.

ontdekt in Zuid-Korea. : een fossiel van de onderkaak van een gehoornde dinaurussoort die zo’n tachtig miljoen jaar geleden tijdens het krijttijdperk geleefd zou hebben.
Het fossiel is goed bewaard gebleven en had volgens een Zuid-Koreaans staatsinstituut “duidelijke teken van acht tanden in de linkeronderkaak”. Het gaat vermoedelijk om een voorloper van de plantenetende soorten Triceratops en Protoceratops.

Kritosaurus

http://ombdinotopia.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=dinotopia&action=display&thread=360&page=12

Kryptops palaios

Familie: Abelisauridae

Kundurosaurus – A Hadrosaur of the Cretaceous (  article  collected  &posted by “Neal” )  

Kundurosaurus nagornyi was a hadrosaurid dinosaur of the late Cretaceous. It is in the subfamily Saurolophinae. The holotype (AENM 2/921) and referred remains were found in the Udurchukan Formation at Kundur in the Amur Region of Far Eastern Russia. They were unearthed in strata that might date to the Maastrichtian age (70.6 – 65.5 million years ago) of the Cretaceous.

Pascal Godefroit, Yuri L. Bolotsky, and Pascaline Lauters wrote an article titled A New Saurolophine Dinosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of Far Eastern Russia. It was published in 2012 in PLoS one. This quote from the abstract says:
Background
Four main dinosaur sites have been investigated in latest Cretaceous deposits from the Amur/Heilongjiang Region: Jiayin and Wulaga in China (Yuliangze Formation), Blagoveschenk and Kundur in Russia (Udurchukan Formation). More than 90% of the bones discovered in these localities belong to hollow-crested lambeosaurine saurolophids, but flat-headed saurolophines are also represented: Kerberosaurus manakini at Blagoveschenk and Wulagosaurus dongi at Wulaga.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Herein we describe a new saurolophine dinosaur Kundurosaurus nagornyi gen. et sp. nov., from the Udurchukan Formation (Maastrichtian) of Kundur, represented by disarticulated cranial and postcranial material. This new taxon is diagnosed by four autapomorphies.
Conclusions/Significance
A phylogenetic analysis of saurolophines indicates that Kundurosaurus nagornyi is nested within a rather robust clade including Edmontosaurus spp., Saurolophus spp., and Prosaurolophus maximus, possibly as a sister taxon for Kerberosaurus manakini also from the Udurchukan Formation of Far Eastern Russia. The high diversity and mosaic distribution of Maastrichtian hadrosaurid faunas in the Amur-Heilongjiang region are the result of complex palaeogeographical history and imply that many independent hadrosaurid lineages dispersed without any problem between western America and eastern Asia at the end of the Cretaceous
The complete text is on this link.
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 Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus
Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus
do 24/07/2014 – Belga
Meer dinosauriërs dan we tot nu toe hadden aangenomen, beschikten over veren. Dat blijkt uit een ontdekking van de Belgische paleontoloog Pascal Godefroit. Mogelijk bewijst de vondst zelfs dat alle dinosauriërs veren konden ontwikkelen, zo meldt het Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen (KBIN). Het onderzoek daarover werd ook gepubliceerd in het wetenschappelijke magazine Science.

Sinds 1996 is aangetoond dat de meeste vleesetende dinosauriërs – of theropoden – min of meer geëvolueerde pluimen hadden. Sommigen hadden ook vleugels waarmee ze van de ene boom naar de andere konden zweven of vliegen.

Maar een onderzoeksteam van de Belgische wetenschapper Pascal Godefroit en zijn Russische collega Sofia Sinitsa ontdekte in de zomer van 2013 aan de Olov-rivier in het oosten van Siberië een nieuwe dinosaurussoort, die Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus werd gedoopt. De Kulindadromeus is anderhalve meter lang, met korte armen, lange achterpoten en een lange staart die bedekt was met schubben. Hij had een korte schedel en de tanden van een planteneter.

Maar de meest verrassende ontdekking van de paleontologen is dat de 169 tot 144 miljoen jaar oude soort complexe structuren op de voor- en achterpoten heeft die op veren lijken. De erg goed bewaarde draden, elk 15 millimeter lang, clusteren per zes of zeven samen.

Het is de eerste keer dat dergelijke structuren bij een primitieve en plantenetende dinosaurus ontdekt worden. Dat bewijst meteen dat niet enkel de theropoden over veren beschikten.

De ontdekking laat meteen ook vermoeden dat deze structuren waarschijnlijk bij alle dinosauriërs voorkwamen, misschien zelfs al bij de meest primitieve soorten, zo concluderen de wetenschappers. De theorie zal de komende jaren ongetwijfeld nog tot veel discussie leiden onder paleontologen, aldus het KBIN

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 4.21.54 AM

Reconstruction of Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus. A basal ornithopod dinosaur, with feathers and scales, from the Middle to Late Jurassic of southeastern Siberia. [Drawing by Pascale Golinvaux (Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences)]

Here’s a figure from the paper showing the reconstruction of the skeleton; the scale lines, which apply to the bones, are 1 cm. (2.54 cm/inch)

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 3.46.07 AM

 

 

Screen shot 2014-07-27 at 5.44.28 AM

The skull, also with a 1 cm scale:

 

Here are impressions of scales on the leg (tibia and tarsus):

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 4.18.01 AM

Large arched scales on the tail (B and C):

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 4.18.10 AM

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 4.18.19 AM

Below are the “feathers” on the arm bones (humerus and part of radius and ulna). B. shows enlargement of the white box in “A”, with the filamentous structures growing out of “compound structures”, and C is an interpretive drawing. The authors note:

These occur as groups of six or seven filaments that converge proximally and arise from the central regions of a basal plate. Individual filaments are 10 to 15 mm long. Those on the humerus are wider (0.2 to 0.4 mm) and straighter than those on the femur (0.1 to 0.2 mm). These groups of filaments. . .  resemble the down feathers of some modern chicken breeds, such as the Silkie, which are devoid of barbules.

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 4.20.43 AM

The fact that feathers appear to be growing out of scale-like features suggests, as biologists have long assumed, that feathers actually evolved from scales, though the authors suggest that the “scales” on birds’ legs and feet are not persistent scales derived from their reptilian ancestors, but evolved back from feathers! Since scales certainly preceded feathers in the fossil record, this shows that truly new structures, certainly involving new genetic information, can evolve (and then be lost, reverting on birds’ feet to scales). That belies the common creationist criticism that new genetic information can’t evolve (we saw that from one commenter earlier today).

Here are some “monofilaments” around the rib cage. These are distributed widely around the head, neck, and thorax:

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 4.24.12 AM

Enlargement of above (box), showing filaments:

Screen shot 2014-07-26 at 4.24.21 AM

Here’s the money paragraph from the paper:

. . . the integumentary structures in Ornithischia, already described in Psittacosaurus and Tianyulong, could be homologous to the “protofeathers” in non-avian theropods. In any case, it indicates that those protofeather-like structures were probably widespread in Dinosauria, possibly even in the earliest members of the clade. Further, the ability to form simple monofilaments and more complex compound structures is potentially nested within the archosauromorph clade. . .

Here’s the final statement in the National Geographic article:

“This does mean that we can now be very confident that feathers weren’t just an invention of birds and their closest relatives, but evolved much deeper in dinosaur history,” [Godefroit] adds. “I think that the common ancestor of dinosaurs probably had feathers, and that all dinosaurs had some type of feather, just like all mammals have some type of hair.”

Even so, Godefroit suggests that the largest dinosaurs likely had the fewest feathers, as they wouldn’t have needed them for insulation. “Just like elephants in Africa don’t need fur,” he says.

That suggests that feathers evolved in smaller dinosaurs as insulation, and the largest ones simply lost them, just as elephants, which evolved from much smaller animals, lost their hair (although their mammoth relatives in colder climes either did not, or re-evolved hair). I like the idea that feathers conferred insulation on these creatures, though a signalling function (which means that the feathers probably were colorful, and may have had different colors and patterns in different species) is not out of the question.

________________

Godefroit, P., S. M. Sinitsa, D. Dhouailly, Y. L. Bolotsky, A. V. Sizov, M. E. McNamara, M. J. Benton, and P. Spagna. 2014. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales. 2014.  Science 345:451-455.

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