DINOSAURICON D


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1: Saurischia (hagedis-heupigen)
De Saurischia bestaan uit de Therapoda en
de Sauropodomorpha,
die weer worden verdeeld in de Prosauropoda en de Sauropoda.
Basale dino’s 
BASAL DINOSAURS
°Theropoda (diervoetigen)
early teropods
De Theropoda zijn exclusief tweevoetig en de enige groep echte carnivoren, hoewel er uitzonderingen zijn. Ze ontstonden in het laat Trias met een grote soortenrijkdom in het vroeg Jura.
Theropods crowd
Aan het eind van het Krijt zijn ze uitgestorven. Het zijn relatief kleine dieren met een lateraal (zijdelings) afgeplat lichaam, een afgeplatte schedel en afgeplatte tanden. De achterpoten zijn groot en de voorpoten klein, soms extreem klein. Ze hebben grote ogen en relatief grote hersenen, een korte nek en een lange staart. De gewrichten van de poten zijn beweeglijk. Ze zijn zenuw-zintuig georiënteerd, het achterlichaam is relatief groot. Sommige grote Theropoda hebben uitgroeisels op de neus.

 

Eoraptor, 1 meter lang en 10 kilo zwaar, een van de eerste Dinosauriërs, liep op de achterpoten

Carnotaurus sastrei
Carnotaurus; 7 meter lang en 1 ton zwaar, zeer kleine armen en twee driehoekige hoorns boven de ogen, een echte vleeseter

tyrannosaurus-rex

Tyrannosaurus rex; een late soort, circa 12 meter lang en 6 meter hoog, woog 7 ton, grote kop, zijn korte armen konden niet bij zijn bek komen, was waarschijnlijk een aaseter

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Prosauropoda (pre-reptielvoetigen)
Ook de primitieve vrij kleine Prosauropoda zijn ontstaan aan het eind van het Trias, aan het begin van het Jura ontstonden veel soorten en daarna zijn ze uitgestorven. Het is niet duidelijk of ze carnivoor of herbivoor waren.
Ze waren twee- of viervoetig.
SAUROPODOMORPHA
Taxonomy Phylogeny
o Saurischia
`--o SAUROPODOMORPHA
   |--Saturnalia tupiniquim
   `--+--Thecodontosaurus
      `--+--Efraasia minor
         |--o Prosauropoda
         |  `--+--+--Plateosauridae 
         |     |  `--+--Massospondylidae 
         |     |     `--Yunnanosaurus 
         |     `--Riojasaurus
         `--o--Anchisaurus 
            `--+--Melanorosauridae 
               `--o Sauropoda (sensu stricto)
                  `==Vulcanodontidae
                     `==Cetiosauridae
                        `--o--Diplodocomorpha
                           `--Macronaria

http://dinosaurs.wikia.com/wiki/Prosauropoda

http://www.kheper.net/evolution/dinosauria/Prosauropoda.html

PROSAUROPODA <– 

plateosaurus

Plateosaurus; 10 meter lang, gewicht 1 ton, krachtige achterpoten en korte voorpoten, lange nek en staart

SAUROPODA  
SONY DSC
Een 30 meter lang skelet van Apatosaurus
Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus);  3 meter hoog, gewicht 40 ton, kon 100 jaar oud worden, kleine kop met puntige tanden
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Sauropoda (reptielvoetigen)
De Sauropoda zijn enorm grote dieren met lange nekken. Zelfs kleine vertegenwoordigers waren 6 meter lang. Meer dan 30 meter was heel gewoon en veel soorten wogen tot 100 ton. Ze waren herbivoor en viervoetig. Ze zijn in het laat Trias ontstaan, veel soorten waren er in het laat Jura en aan het eind van het Krijt zijn ze uitgestorven. De poten zijn als pilaren en de gewrichten van de poten waren niet buigzaam. De schedel en tanden zijn minder afgeplat. Sommige soorten hebben uitgroeisels op de neus of het voorhoofd of schilden op de romp. De lange nek zorgt voor afstand tussen het zenuw-zintuiggebied van het hoofd en het stofwisseling-ledematengebied van de romp, zodat ze niet ondergedompeld zijn in de dofheid van de stofwisselingsprocessen.
Wanneer Theropoda en Sauropoda groter worden en zich meer specialiseren, komt de nadruk van het lichaam meer vooraan te liggen. Bij de Theropoda neemt de kopgrootte toe en worden de nek en de voorpoten korter, bij de Sauropoda wordt de staartlengte kleiner en komt de kop hoger te zitten door verlenging van de nek en door langere voorpoten. Nadruk vooraan heeft zo twee verschijningsvormen: een grote kop, korte nek en korte voorpoten enerzijds en anderzijds een kleine kop, lange nek en lange voorpoten.
sauropodomorpha
Indeling van de Saurischia met de lichaamsvormen, per groep links vroege vormen, rechts late.
Bij de Theropoda ligt de nadruk op het achterlichaam, latere vormen hebben een grote kop, bij
de Sauropoda ligt de nadruk vanaf het begin meer vooraan, en wordt de staart korter en neemt het voorlichaam (romp, nek, voorpoten) nog in grootte toe.Dinosauriërs
2: Ornithischia (vogel-heupigen) 
De Ornithischia bestaan uit de Thyreophora en de Cerapoda, die weer worden verdeeld in de Ornithopoda en de Marginocephalia. 
Thyreophora (schilddragers)
De Thyreophora zijn Dinosauriërs met ritmisch geordende schilden, platen en stekels. Vroege soorten waren relatief klein met schilden, een lange staart en korte poten. De latere, grote soorten hadden opvallende platen en wapens en gepaarde stekels of knotsen aan het eind van hun staart. Naast de vroege soorten worden er twee groepen onderscheiden: de Stegosauriërs en de Ankylosauriërs.De Stegosauriërs hadden een zijdelings afgeplat lichaam, lange achterpoten en een lange schedel. Bij de Ankylosauriërs waren het lichaam en de kop horizontaal en breed, soms met zijwaartse hoorns op de kop. Ze hadden kortere achterpoten. Alle soorten hadden tanden, geen kiezen. De Stegosauriërs hadden hun bloeitijd in het Jura en namen in het Krijt af. De Ankylosauriërs hadden hun bloeitijd in het Krijt.Ornithopoda (vogel-voetigen)
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Bij de Ornithopoda is er een ontwikkeling van kleine, tweevoetige dieren uit het vroeg Jura naar de grote, bekende viervoetige dieren als Iguanodon en Hadrosaurus uit het Krijt. De achterpoten zijn langer dan de voorpoten en er zijn soms uitgroeisels op het voorhoofd.Marginocephalia (rand-koppigen)
De herbivore Marginocephalia ontstonden pas in het midden van het Krijt. Vroege vertegenwoordigers waren klein en tweevoetig en hadden een lange staart. De latere, gehoornde dieren als Triceratops waren viervoetig met een korte staart en een grote kop met een “kraag” en hoefdierachtige gepaarde hoorns. De latere soorten hadden geen stenen meer in hun maag om het voedsel fijn te maken, maar aanpassingen aan het spijsverteringskanaal.Vroege soorten van de Ornithopoda en de Marginocephalia hadden tanden, late soorten maalkiezen waarmee ze hard materiaal fijn konden maken.
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Indeling van de Ornithischia.
Bij de Thyreophora zijn er in de tijd drie groepen: de vroegste dieren, de Stegosauriërs en de Ankylosauriërs.
               Stegosaurus reconstructionAnkylosaurus reconstruction
Bij de Ornithopoda en de Marginocephalia staan
de vroege, tweevoetige soorten links en de latere, meer gespecialiseerde soorten rechts.


Brachiosaurus; 15 meter hoog en 90 ton zwaar,
leek op een giraf met zijn lange nek en lange voorpoten, had beitelvormige tanden in een kleine kop

Ornitischia

Thyreophora

Scutellosaurus; een primitieve soort, 1,20 meter lang, woog 10 kilo, tweevoetig, huid bedekt met schubben, bijzonder lange staart


Hesperosaurus (Stegosauriërs); 6 meter lang, langere achter- dan voorpoten; een rij schilden op de ruggegraad en 4 stekels op de staart


Saicharia (Ankylosauriërs); 6 meter lang, de rug is bedekt met platen met stekels, de staart eindigt in een knots

Ornithopoda

Tenontosaurus; tot 7 meter lang en 2 ton zwaar,
een lange staart en lange achterpoten, at planten


Iguanodon; was zeker 10 meter lang en woog 3 ton, lange achterpoten, liep op alle vier, ronde rug


Hadrosaurus; 12 meter lang, 7 ton, lange, platte schedel, herbivoor, wordt ook “eendenkop” Dinosaurus genoemd

Marginocephalia


Schedel van Triceratops; twee lange naar voren gebogen hoorns en een kleine op de neus,
een brede kraag


Anchiceratops (Cerapoda); 6 meter lang en 2,5 meter hoog, 2 ton, twee grote hoorns en een
kleine en een flinke kraag


Centrosaurus; 6 meter lang, had een hoorn op zijn neus, die naar voren of naar achteren gebogen kon zijn, een grote, hoge, stralende kraag

Pootafdrukken
  
Grallator en Megalosauripus, beide Theropoda

  
Otozoum, een Prosauropoda en Brontopodus, een Sauropoda

*Groupes et familles de dinosaures

*L’extinction des dinosaures

*Découverte et Actualité sur les caractéristiques et l’environnement des   dinosaures

Dino’s

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Where & when did dinosaurs live?

Paleontologists now have evidence that dinosaurs lived on all of the continents. At the beginning of the age of dinosaurs (during the Triassic Period, about 230 million years ago) the continents we now know were arranged together as a single supercontinent called Pangea.

During the 165 million years of dinosaur existence this supercontinent slowly broke apart. Its pieces then spread across the globe into a nearly modern arrangement by a process called plate tectonics.

Volcanoes, earthquakes, mountain building, and sea-floor spreading are all part of plate tectonics, and this process is still changing our modern Earth.

Drawing showing relativepositions of the continents during the age of dinosaurs
Relative positions of continents during the age of dinosaurs

Dinosaur communities were separated by both time and geography.

The “age of dinosaurs” (the Mesozoic Era) included three consecutive geologic time periods (the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods).

Different dinosaur species lived during each of these three periods.

For example, the Jurassic dinosaur Stegosaurus already had been extinct for approximately 80 million years before the appearance of the Cretaceous dinosaur Tyrannosaurus.

In fact, the time separating Stegosaurus and Tyrannosaurus is greater than the time separating Tyrannosaurus and you.

At the beginning of dinosaur history (the Triassic Period), there was one supercontinent on Earth (Pangea).

Many dinosaur types were widespread across it.

However, as Pangea broke apart, dinosaurs became scattered across the globe on separate continents, and new types of dinosaurs evolved separately in each geographic area.

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dinosaurs/where.html

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dinosaurs/together.html

HOW MANY SPECIES ?

See

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categorie:Dinosauria (Nederlands )http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Dinosaurs (English )

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur

Scientific review suggests that only about half of the known ( = seperately named ) dinosaur species are based on fairly complete specimens that can be shown to be unique and separate species.

These species are placed in ( 2005 data ) about 300 valid dinosaur genera (StegosaurusDiplodocus, etc.), although about 540 have been named. Recent estimates suggest that about 700 to 900 more dinosaur genera may remain to be discovered.

Most dinosaur genera presently contain only one species (for example, Deinonychus) but some have more (for example, Iguanodon).

Even if all of the ( to this date) published species are valid, their number is still less than one-tenth the number of currently known living bird species, less than one-fifth the number of currently (2005 ) known mammal species, and less than one-third the number of currently known spider species.

(1) Estimating the diversity of dinosaurs Steve C. Wang*,† and Peter Dodson‡ http://www.pnas.org/content/103/37/13601.abstracthttp://www.world-science.net/othernews/060905_dinosaur.htm

Most dinosaurs still unaccounted for, study finds Sept. 5, 2006 Courtesy University of Pennsylvania

The gold­en age of dinosaur discovery is yet to come, two researchers say in a study that suggests most types of dinosaurs are still undiscovered. The scientists used a statistical method to estimate the total number of dinosaur genera —taxonomic groups each containing one or more species—based on finds to date. It’s unknown whether the calculation of discoverable genera mirrors the actual diversity of dinosaurs that lived, since it’s estimated that nearly half of dinosaur genera left no fossil evidence.

Their result: 71%  of dinosaur genera have yet to be unearthed, not counting dinosaurs that may be undiscoverable because they did­n’t fossilize. The researchers also offered evidence that dinosaur populations were stable shortly before their extinction ( begining )65 million years ago.

Dodson proposes that 1,850 gen­er­a will eventually be discovered, in total. 527 genera have so far been found, although that number is rising at the rate of 10 to 20 per year. “The 1990s saw an 85% in­crease in the number of new fossil discoveries,” Dod­son said. Dinosaur discovery was largely in the hands of British, Canadian and American researchers. But in recent decades the discovery of new fossil beds, especially in China , Mongolia and South America(Brasil,argentinia/Patagonia ), has opened the field to many researchers from those countries.

(Nederlands) http://noorderlicht.vpro.nl/artikelen/29979779/;jsessionid=2E69E258F711AF36181BFFB801D54855

 ( anti creato)

 

 

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Daanosaurus

Yong’an Township fossielen
november 2002 (Zigong Dinosaur Museum rapport )  : vondsten  in een  mijn nabij  Zigong stad   –> bijna volledige sauropode fossielen van jonge –Zhang Daan Long. individuen   . Ze vertegenwoordigen  een nieuw type  van   een  Sichuan Basin sauropode uit het Laat jura

http://www.zdm.cn/dinosaur/News_View.asp?NewsID=139

http://animal.discovery.com/dinosaurs/dacentrurus.htm

Dacentrurus Armatus
Brian Franczak

subfamily Dacentrurinae

These were late persisting primitive types, that seem to have characteristics indicating a type ancestral to other stegosaurids (even if they themselves are too late in time to be an actual ancestor). The vertebrae are more primitive and the forelimbs longer in comparison to the hind-limbs. Although Dacentrurus armatus is the only certain species, an early femur has been compared top that species.

Dacentrurus armatus  - scale bar equals 50 cmDacentrurus armatus Lucas, 1902b

synonym: Omosaurus armatus Owen, 1875 Horizon: Lower Kimmeridge Clay of England, Argiles d’Octeville of France, unnamed unit of Portugal

This is the first stegosaur described by science, although the original name, Omosaurus, had to be changed to Dacentrurus, (as it was already applied to another animal). It is the most primitive known stegosaurid, with primitive vertebrae and long forelimbs, and some researchers have suggested it deserves to be put in a separate family. It is also among the largest of the stegosaurs. There are also a number of specilised features in the vertebrae and hip that prevent from being an actual ancestor. As with many early-named European dinosaurs, the species seems to be something of a garbage taxon for fragmentary remains of a generally similiar type, as it is unlikely that one species would persist for a period of some 10 or 12 million years or so. Some remains suggest individuals of 10 meters in length, larger than the biggest Stegosaurus.

Specimen of “Dachongosaurus yunnanensis” (after Zhao, 1985).Specimen of “Dachongosaurus yunnanensis” (after Zhao, 1985).

http://theropoddatabase.blogspot.be/2011/01/dachongosaurus-zhaos-nomina-nuda-part-2.html

http://www.bloggen.be/evodisku/archief.php?ID=1157010

 

 

daemonosaurus-skull  and cercical vertebrae

CM 76821, skull and anterior cervical vertebrae with cervical ribs of Daemonosaurus chauliodus (Sues et al., 2011). Top row, left and ride sides of the slab bearing the skull; middle row, interpretive drawing of the slab; and bottom, interpretic reconstruction of skull.

Daemonosaurus   Skull (left )  and  Face

April 13, 2011
left

left

Daemonosaurus-faceIllustration: Jeffrey Martz

This rendering of Daemonosaurus chauliodus shows its size relative to an American quarter. The species name chauliodus is derived from the Greek word for “buck-toothed” and refers to the species’ big slanted front teeth.

 

daemonosaurus_chauliodus_by_teratophoneus-d5g2cci

 

Related Content

Nieuwe vleesetende dinosaurus ontdekt op Madagaskar

19 april 2013  
Outline of Dahalokely tokana with a human for scale, showing known bones in white and missing areas patterned after related animals.” Copyright Andrew Farke and Joseph Sertich

dinosaurus

http://www.nu.nl/wetenschap/3401858/raadselachtig-dinosaurusfossiel-ontdekt-madagaskar.html

Bronmateriaal:
New Dinosaur from Madagascar Named by Alf Museum Scientist” – Alfmuseum.org
De foto bovenaan dit artikel is gemaakt door xx (cc via Flickr.com).

Amerikaanse en Duitse  wetenschappers hebben op Madagaskar een nieuwe dinosaurussoort ontdekt. De dino was een echte vleeseter en zou tussen de 2,7 en 4,2 meter lang zijn geweest.

De onderzoekers hebben de dinosaurus de naam Dahalokely tokana gegeven. Het dier leefde zo’n negentig miljoen jaar geleden. In die tijd zag Madagasker er heel anders uit. Het eiland zat vast aan India en bevond zich in het midden van de Indische Oceaan. Zo’n 88 miljoen jaar geleden braken India en Madagaskar uiteen. Het is dus niet ondenkbaar dat het nageslacht van de teruggevonden dinosaurus later zowel op India als op Madagaskar terug te vinden was.

Abelisauridae
De onderzoekers hebben maar enkele botjes van D. tokana teruggevonden. Het gaat om enkele wervels en ribben.Sommige botten van de nieuw ontdekte soort, met name in de wervelkolom, vertonen een vorm die nog nooit eerder is waargenomen bij andere dinosaurusfossielen.  Juist met deze botjes kunnen verschillende soorten dinosaurussen zich van elkaar onderscheiden. Vandaar dat onderzoekers genoeg materiaal hadden om vast te stellen dat D. tokana een nieuwe soort is. De dinosaurus behoort tot de Abelisauridae. Abelisauridae zijn een groep vleesetende dinosaurussen die vooral in zuidelijke gebieden wordt teruggevonden.

Alf Museum Paleontologist Dr. Andy Farke at the Discovery Site for Dahalokely

Alf Museum Paleontologist Dr. Andy Farke at the Discovery Site for Dahalokely

https://www.facebook.com/AlfMuseum

http://alfmuseum.org/

“De fossielen van Dahalokely zijn opwindend incompleet”, verklaart hoofdonderzoeker Andrew Farke op nieuwssite ScienceDaily.

We willen nog zo veel meer weten. Was deze dinosaurus bijvoorbeeld verwant aan latere Abelisaurussen die op Madagaskar leefden, of stierf hij uit zonder afstammelingen?”

Ook de bijzondere vorm van de wervelkolom zet de wetenschappers voor een raadsel. De eigenschappen van de botten vormen een bijzondere mix tussen karakteristieken van andere dinosaurussoorten, zoals de Carnotaurus en de Majungasaurus.

“Dit versterkt het belang van het verkennen van nieuwe gebieden waar mogelijk nog meer onbekende dinosaurussoorten op ons wachten”, aldus onderzoeker Joe Sertich.

(Door: NU.nl/Dennis Rijnvis  )

Hypothese
“We hebben altijd al vermoed dat Abelisauridae zo’n negentig miljoen jaar geleden op Madagaskar leefden, omdat we ze ook in jongere gesteenten op het eiland hebben teruggevonden,” vertelt onderzoeker Andrew Farke.

Die hypothese is nu bevestigd. Maar de onderzoekers zijn er nog niet.

“De fossiele resten zijn zeer incompleet en we willen nog veel meer weten over Dahalokely te weten komen.”

De ontdekking van D. tokana is heel belangrijk, zo stellen de onderzoekers in het blad PLoS ONE. In het verleden zijn op Madagaskar wel meer fossiele resten van dinosaurussen teruggevonden. Maar geen van deze resten stamt uit de periode tussen 165 en 70 miljoen jaar geleden. Er zit dus een flink gat in onze kennis over de dinosaurussen op Madagaskar. Met de vondst van de 90 miljoen jaar oude D. tokana is dat gat een twintig miljoen jaar kleiner geworden.

http://phys.org/news/2013-04-carnivorous-dinosaur-madagascar.html

Bronmateriaal:
New Dinosaur from Madagascar Named by Alf Museum Scientist” – Alfmuseum.org
De foto bovenaan dit artikel is gemaakt door xx (cc via Flickr.com).
Dahokely  collage 
dahalokely  collage
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Inguanodon

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2010/11/17/the-explosion-of-iguanodon-part-3-hypselospinus-wadhurstia-dakotadon-proplanicoxa-when-will-it-all-end/

http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2010/11/17/goodbye-super-inclusive-iguanodon/

Full-size image (68 K)

Fig. 2. Non-hadrosaurid ankylopollexian skulls in left (some reversed) lateral views, bones as preserved, each drawn to same total length. A, Camptosaurus dispar composite. B, Theiophytalia kerri holotype. C, Fukuisaurus tetoriensis composite. D–L, iguanodonts. D, Dakotadon lakotaensis gen. nov. holotype. E–L, iguanodontoids. E, Jinzhousaurus yangi holotype. F, Iguanodon bernissartensis lectotype. G, Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis holotype. H, Dollodon bampingi gen. nov. sp. nov. holotype. I, Altirhinus kurzanovi holotype. J, Ouranosaurus nigeriensis holotype. K, Probactrosaurus gobiensis holotype etc. L, Equijubus normani holotype.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667107001048

Paul, G. S. 2008. A revised taxonomy of the iguanodont dinosaur genera and species. Cretaceous Research 29/2, pp. 192-216.

http://theropoddatabase.blogspot.be/2011/01/damalosaurus-zhaos-nomina-nuda-part-4.html

https://tsjok45.wordpress.com/2012/09/16/dinosauricon-inhoud-2/damalasaurus/

Dorsal rib of “Damalosaurus laticostalis/magnus” in matrix, from Zhao (1985

Diet: herbivore
Time: Jurassic (188-169 MYA)
Location: Asia (China/Tibet)

Damalasaurus was a large, primitive sauropod dinosaur. It had a small head, a bulky body, a long tail, and four short legs. Fossils were found in China. Damalasaurus lived during the middle Jurassic period, about 188-169 million years ago. Damalasaurus was named by Chinese paleontologist Zhao Xijin in 1983. The type species is D. magnus. Damalasaurus is a nomen nudium, a genus that has not yet been formally described.
“Damalasaurus” (meaning “Damala lizard”) is the informal name (nomen nudum) given to a genus of herbivorous dinosaur from the Early Jurassic. It was a sauropod, though its exact classification within the clade is unknown. Fossils of “Damalasaurus”, including a rib, have been found in the Middle Daye Group of Tibet. Species attributed to this genus include “Damalasaurus laticostalis” and “D. magnus”.

daspletosaurus

Daspletosaurus

Daspletosaurus signifie “Effroyable reptile charnu”.

Ce théropode d’environ 9 m de long vivait au Crétacé supérieur. Une seule espèce a été pour le moment décrite, Daspletosaurus torosus, en 1970. Plusieurs fossiles fragmentaires et des crânes, dont certains complets, proviennent du Canada et des Etats-Unis.

Comme les autres tyrannosaures, Daspletosaurus possède des côtes supplémentaires ventrales, des gastralia, situées entre les vraies côtes et le pelvis. Elles servaient à maintenir les intestins et sans doute aussi à les protéger quand l’animal se reposait sur le sol.

Daspletosaurus possède les terribles mâchoires des Tyrannosauridés. Il pouvait d’un seul coup de dents terrasser un adversaire et réduire en bouillie os et chair avec ses poignards meurtriers.

Les membres antérieurs sont plus grands que chez les autres Tyrannosauridés.

Daspletosaurus

Daspletosaurus. © dinosoria.com

Presque tous les fossiles de Daspletosaurus proviennent d’animaux adultes; c’est l’inverse pour les fossiles d’Albertosaurus dont la moitié appartiennent à des individus immatures.

Peut-être, il y a t-il eu coexistence de ces deux Tyrannosauridés sur des niches écologiques différentes.
Certains paléontologues ont avancé l’hypothèse que Daspletosaurus s’attaquait de préférence aux cératopsiens de grandes tailles alors que Albertosaurus, plus léger, préférait les petits hadrosaures.

Une autre hypothèse serait que Daspletosaurus n’existe pas et n’est qu’un synonyme d’Albertosaurus.

Classification: Saurischiens Theropodes Tyrannosaures Tyrannosauridés

V.Battaglia (05.2003)

 Les Tyrannosauridés

Daspletosaurus was a cousin of Tyrannosaurus rex. It was smaller than a full-grown T-rex but probably quicker and fiercer. It had tiny horns behind its eyes and its arms were a bit longer than those of T. rex. It may have been an ancestor of T. rex.

Theropoda – * Tetanura – advanced theropods with three fingers* Infraorder Coelurosauria – lightly-built fast-running predators with hollow bones and large brains
* Superfamily Maniraptoriformes – advanced coelurosaurs with a fused wrist bone* Family Tyrannosauroidea* Genus Daspletosaurus

 * D. torosus (D. A. Russell, 1970)(9 meters)2-3 tons
Time: 75 million years ago (Late Cretaceous)Alberta (Canada), Montana (carnivore)

FOSSILS: A nearly complete skeleton has been found, plus one skull and a few assorted bones.



Deinocheirus ( Greek: ‘terrible hand’) was a theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now southern Mongolia, during the Late Cretaceous Period. The only known fossil remains are a single pair of massive, eight-foot-long (2.4 m) forelimbs, with 10-inch long claws and the remains of some ribs and vertebrae. Deinocheirus was named by Halszka Osmólska and Ewa Roniewicz in 1970. The type species and only named species is D. mirificus (Latin: ‘unusual’, ‘peculiar’). Replicas of the fossilized ‘arms’ are currently on display at the Paleontological Museum of the University of Oslo, Norway, the American Museum of Natural History, New York and the Natural History Museum, London.

Deinocheiridae. The family Deinocheiridae was initially placed in the infraorder Carnosauria, owing to the “gigantic size and thick-walled limb bones” but Osmólska and Roniewicz also speculated that it possibly “constitutes a link between Carnosauria and Coelurosauria”. Within Carnosauria, the family Deinocheiridae was tentatively assigned to the superfamily Megalosauroidea, basically because it was obviously not a tyrannosauroid (tyrannosaurids having greatly reduced forelimbs).

Deinocheirus is now considered by most paleontologists to be an ornithomimosaur, as the structure of its arms is similar to other dinosaurs of this group. This would make Deinocheirus by far the largest ornithomimosaur, at approximately 23-40 ft (7-12 m) long and weighing roughly 9000 kg. Makovicky et al pointed out that if Deinocheirus is an ornithomimosaur, it is a fairly primitive one, since it lacks some of the features typically seen in ornithomimosaurs. Kobayashi and Barsbold added Deinocheirus to several recent cladistic analyses of theropods and were unable to resolve its exact relationships but noted some support for it as a possible ornithomimosaur.

Biology

Early work generally envisioned Deinocheirus as a carnivore that used its long forelimbs “in tearing dead or weakly agile prey asunder” (Osmólska & Roniewicz 1970: 15). Lambert embellished this view, describing the clawed hands of Deinocheirus as “horrifying weapons for attacking dinosaurs of almost any size … capable of ripping open a sauropod’s soft underbelly”.
Paul disagreed, writing that the claws are too blunt for killing but would have been good defensive weapons.
Rozhdestvensky compared the forelimbs of Deinocheirus to sloths, leading him to hypothesize that Deinocheirus was a specialized climbing dinosaur, that fed on fruits and leaves and perhaps also eggs and any small animals found in trees.
Rozhdestvensky imagined Deinocheirus with the trunk and hind limbs no longer than the fore limbs but there is no hard evidence for this and the climbing hypothesis has not received much support from other scientists.

© 2007 Answers Corporation

Deinocheirus mirificus appears to have been a giant ornithomimosaur of Montolia. The holotype (2Pal MgD-1/6) is a set of limb elements. These remains were found in the Nemegt Formation at Altan Ula III, site 2, in Mongolia. They are of early Maastrichtian age (c 70 million years ago).
    Phil R. Bell, Philip J. Currie, and Yuong-Nam Lee wrote an article titled Tyrannosaur feeding traces on Deinocheirus (Theropoda: ? Ornithomimosauria) remains from the Nemegt Formation (Late Cretaceous), Mongolia. It was published in 2012. This quote from the abstract says:
Bite marks attributed to Tarbosaurus bataar are identified on fragments of gastralia from the giant putative ornithomimosaur Deinocheirus minificus. Hundreds of bone fragments collected from the holotype quarry of D. mirificus by members of the Korea-Mongolia International Dinosaur Project at Altan Uul III (Mongolia) were visually inspected for biomodification. Parallel striae and gouges were identified on two gastralia, which are interpreted as bite marks. Serration marks, interpreted from parallel striae, are broadly U-shaped and measure 0.5 mm in diameter. A comparison of these marks with the denticles of Nemegt theropods reveals the tyrannosaur, Tarbosaurus as the most likely culprit. The identification of tyrannosaur bite marks on the bones of D. mirificus sheds light on both the diet of Tarbosaurus and the taphonomy of the only known specimen of Deinocheirus. This link has the abstract and fossil photos.

Deinonychus June 20, 2011

Filed under: Theropoda —

Deinonychus was far from being one of the largest dinosaurs, but it was one of the most skillful hunters – one of the thugs of the dinosaur world. It always walked on its back legs and was armed with sharp claws and teeth that could rip into prey with alarming ease.

Known from more than nine skeletons, this is the animal over which the debate about whether dinosaurs were warm- or cold-blooded began. One remarkable deposit has several Deinonychus skeletons scattered around the remains of an ornithopod, Tenontosaurus, indicating that it was a pack hunter. It was the prototype for the ‘raptors’ in Jurassic Park, although modern representations have them covered in feathers.

Factbox

Name: Deinonychus, meaning ’terrible claw’

Size: 3-4m long and 1m high

Food: meat, especially the flesh of herbivorous dinosaurs

Lived: around 115 million years ago in the Cretaceous Period in North America

Until 1964, experts thought there were two separate types of theropod – big and heavy like Tyrannosaurus or small and slim likeVelociraptor. Then in southern Montana, USA, fossils of a theropod were found that made the experts think again.

The fossils they found were of an animal that had features of both types of theropod. Like all bipeds, it always walked on its back legs. It was small and fleet-footed with very special weapons – two huge, wickedly curved and pointed claws. Deinonychus carried these awesome weapons on the second toe of each foot. They were as long as carving knives and just as sharp. The other toes had much smaller claws.

When Deinonychus was running, either chasing its prey or escaping from a larger predator, it used the strong muscles in its feet to pull its special, massive, hooked claws up, away from the ground. This protected them from damage. Its other claws were smaller and blunter and were used for gripping the ground and balance.

Deinonychus was built for speed. It had a slim body supported by strong, slender legs. Its very strong ankle joints could absorb enormous amounts of pressure when it ran flat out. Deinonychus’ skull had holes in the bone and scientists think that its head was quite light. A solid bone skull would have been very heavy. They believe it could run at 40km/h when it had to – faster than a human Olympic sprinter.

Deinonychus hunted in packs, just like the wild dogs that hunt prey on the African plains do today. It probably prowled around herds of Tenontosaurus and other giant herbivores. It kept a watchful eye out for young or infirm members of the herd that strayed close to where it was waiting. Then Deinonychus attacked. It used one claw to cling on to the victim, and ripped into its soft underside with the other. Next, Deinonychus’ teeth went into action. They were sharp and curved backwards, making it impossible for the victim to wrench itself free.

The tail of Deinonychus was held stiff and straight by means of bony rods. Each vertebra had bony tendons growing from it that clasped several of the vertebrae behind, solidifying the whole structure into an inflexible pole with only limited movement at the base for balance. When the tail was held outstretched, it helped Deinonychus to balance itself as it sprinted across the land. It may also have used its tail as a sort of rudder, to help it zigzag through the rocky landscape at top speed.

When experts studied Deinonychus’ skull, they found it had large eye sockets. This made them think that the animal had eagle-sharp eyesight – perfect for spotting a likely victim some distance away.

Deinonychus’ kick was so strong that it could break its own toe. We know this because a fossil bone has been found that had been fractured and then healed. Scientists have suggested that the dinosaur may have crippled itself as it kicked out at its prey.

Its brainpower was enough to keep the animal balanced while it slashed away with the killer claw on the second toe. The long, heavily clawed hands are angled so that the palms face inwards, enabling it to clutch firmly at its prey.

deinonychus

Deinonychus (Emily Willoughby)

Deinonychus

(Greek for “terrible claw”);

Forests of North America  : Middle Cretaceous (100 million years ago): About 12 feet long( 3meters )  and 150 pounds(60 a 80 kgr )  * :   Light, sleek build; giant claws on hind feet

* it’was  more likely the model  for the “velociraptor” in “jurassic Park ” )

Bestand:Deinonychus.jpg

Anatomy:

Deinonychus had a curved, flexible neck and a big head with sharp, serrated teeth in very powerful jaws.

Each of its three fingers on each hand had large, sharp, curved claws. It had four-toed feet; the second toe had a 5-inch (13-cm) sickle-like claw, and the other toes had smaller claws.

Its long tail had bony rods running along the spine, giving it rigidity; the tail was used for balance and fast turning ability.

Deinonychus had a relatively large brain and large, keen eyes. This dromaeosaurid theropod had a relatively large brain for a dinosaur.

Deinonychus was first found by Grant E. Meyer and John H. Ostrom in southern Montana (in the western United States) in 1964. Deinonychus antirrhopus was named by Ostrum in 1969.

More than eight Deinonychus fossils have been found in Montana, Utah, and Wyoming, USA. 

Deinonychus Ostrom, 1969

Aptian-Albian 121 - 98.9 mjg

http://www.dinosaurus.net/genera/DDD/deinonychus.htm

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinonychus

De naam Deinonychus betekent ‘verschrikkelijke klauw’, en dan worden niet eens zijn klauwen aan zijn handen bedoeld maar vooral zijn verschrikkelijke teenklauwen die hij normaal omhoog hield met lopen en die bij een aanval op een b.v. een planteneter met kracht in het vlees van zijn prooidier werden geslagen.

Hoewel deinonychus niet zo groot was (3 meter en ongeveer 60 kg) kon hij veel grotere prooidieren aan omdat hij in troepen jaagde (werd verondersteld )zoals bijvoorbeeld ook leeuwen en wolfen doen.

Deinonychus leefde in het Krijt zo’n 113 mjg en de paleontologen denken dat vogels zijn voortgekomen uit nog vroeger levend lid van deze familie, de dromaeosauridae.

De dromaeosauriden bestonden uit de volgende genera;

Deinonychus /Velociraptor/ Dromaeosaurus /Utahraptor/ Megaraptor ?

Fossielen van Deinonychus zijn gevonden in de Verenigde Staten in Montana en Wyoming.

Tegenwoordig wordt algemeen aangenomen dat Deinonychus veren of veerachtige structuren heeft gehad

http://chasmosaurs.blogspot.com/2011/05/splendidly-adorned-deinonychus.html

http://www.flickr.com/photos/paul_heaston/5701455085/

File:A feathered replica of Deinonychus.jpg

Based on the known feathers sported by similarly sized raptors and dino-birds, it has become fashionable to depict Deinonychus as covered with its own feathers. Of course, it’s up to the artist to choose the particular colors, of which we have absolutely no evidence!

As with other raptors, the actual appearance of Deinonychus is a matter of debate: today, it’s often depicted as sporting primitive feathers, though its skin may well have been more reptilian in appearance (as it was formerly portrayed ).

Although it was far from the biggest dinosaur of the Cretaceous period, Deinonychus was especially fearsome because of its speed, its presumed ability to hunt in packs (tangled Deinonychus bones have been found in close proximity to the remains of Tenontosaurus, a tasty ornithopod), and the enormous, sickle-shaped claws on its hind feet that it used to rip apart larger dinosaurs. We can thank the famous paleontologist John H. Ostrom, who discovered the first specimen, for much of what we currently know about Deinonychus–as well as for the idea that raptors like Deinonychus eventually evolved into modern birds.

http://dinosaurs.about.com/od/carnivorousdinosaurs/p/deinonychus.htm

Classificatie Vindplaats grootte 1 blok= 50X50cm
‘Verschrikkelijke klauw’
Dinosauria
Saurischia
Theropoda
Tetanurae
Maniraptora
Dromaeosauridae

Dicraeosaurus May 12, 2011

Filed under: Sauropoda — muzillu @ 4:47 pm
The only late Jurassic diplodocid found in Africa was Dicraeosaurus. It was a member of the Tendaguru fauna and, along with the other animals, showed that the same families of dinosaurs existed in North America and Africa at that time. However, Dicraeosaurus was so different from the North American forms that it has been given its own family, the Dicraeosauridae.

Factbox
NameDicraeosaurus, meaning ‘two-forked lizard’
Size: Up to 6m tall and 20m long
Food: Plants
Lived: about 195 – 141 million years ago, in the Jurassic Period, in East Africa
For a diplodocid, Dicraeosaurus has a strangely short neck with only 12 vertebrae, far fewer than any of the other late Jurassic diplodocids except for Brachytrachelopan. The vertebrae have extremely long spines that are deeply cleft in the neck and form a kind of low sail over the back. These features would have made it look bigger in profile and would have helped to deter predators, or would have helped to regulate its body temperature. The tail has the typical diplodocid whiplash that would have been used as a weapon (although this is in dispute). It may also have been sufficiently fast to flee from its predators when threatened.
Dicraeosaurus lived in the Late Jurassic, alongside the likes of Giraffatitan and Kentrosaurus. However, it didn’t compete with them for vegetation. As there was a distinct difference in size between these dinosaurs, they would probably have browsed at different levels, allowing them to coexist without significant competition.
A huge discovery of dinosaur bones was made in 1907 in Tanzania, East Africa. It seems that many dinosaurs died near the mouth of a river and their bodies were washed on to mud banks. Some of the bones that were dug up belonged to dinosaurs that had not been discovered before. Among them was Dicraeosaurus, although it was not called this until 1935.
A full skeleton of Dicraeosaurus is mounted in the Humboldt Museum in Berlin, Germany, beside that of its Tendaguru neighbour Giraffatitan.

Dilong paradoxus Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea Early Cretaceous Asia SCULPT MODELS RESTORATION RECONSTRUCTIONS CAST CASTS COPYING REPLICAS RECONSTRUCTION RESTORATIONS DUPLICATIONS REPRODUCTION COPYING DUPLICATION REPRODUCTION IMITATION IMITATIONS REPLI

Dilong paradoxus Tyrannosauridae ; Early cretaceous : asia : 1.09 /0.41 metres

Possibly the most amazing and ferocious little predator from Asia, Dilong paradoxus is the oldest known ancestor of the mighty Tyrannosaurus rex. Though not growing much bigger than a large dog, this dinosaur showed some traits startlingly close to T.rex. The tiny, two-fingered arms are eerily reminiscent of those seen on T. rex, and the stout, recurved teeth are definitely tyrannosaurid. The skull, itself, resembles a scaled down Albertosaurus, and is graceful yet fearsome. Dilong material is exceedingly rare and very few replicas of any Dilong bones are available anywhere. This is cast of a complete subadult individual

A close-up of Dilophosaurus at the Museum of Northern Arizona, one of the few actual Jurassic dinosaurs in Jurassic Park.

Dilophosaurus-990x664

Ceratosauria :  Early jurassic   , USA , China    5.2   1.2   2.3  metres

   

 Dilophosaurus (two-ridge lizard) is the earliest big theropod that is well-known from adequate remains. Partial skeletons of about half a dozen young and adult specimens have been found in Arizona, and the late 1980s brought news of a discovery in China. Dilophosaurus was a long lithe hunter, lighter than its relative Ceratosaurus. The build and enormously long tail are reminiscent of Dilophosaurus smaller cousin Coelophysis. According to the current taxonomy of the carnivorous theropod dinosaurs (of which Dilophosaurus is undoubtedly a member), Dilophosaurus is considered to be a ceratosaur, the earliest and most primitive of the theropod groups. The manus has 4 digits (the fourth digit is vestigial, or reduced), and the pes has 3 digits. Actually, we know from other specimens of Dilophosaurus that it had a fourth and fifth digit on each pes, but these are extremely reduced, and were not preserved in the holotype specimen. Most of the formations in the area where Dilophosaurus was found and from that general time are of fairly arid habitat. Much of the sedimentary rocks from there and then is aeolian sand (that is sand dunes)

mage Copyright © Jurassic Park Institute

Diplodocus is a genus of diplodocid sauropod dinosaur whose fossilised skeleton was first discovered in 1877 by S. W. Williston. The generic name, coined by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878, is a Neo-Latin term derived from Greek (diploos) “double” and (dokos) “beam”, in reference to its double-beamed chevron bones located in the underside of the tail. These bones were initially believed to be unique to Diplodocus; however, they have since then been discovered in other members of the diplodocid family and in non-diplodocid sauropods such as Mamenchisaurus.It lived in what is now western North America at the end of the Jurassic Period. Diplodocus is one of the more common dinosaur fossils found in the Upper Morrison Formation, a sequence of shallow marine and alluvial sediments deposited about 150 to 147 million years ago, in what is now termed the Kimmeridgian and Tithonian stages. The Morrison Formation records an environment and time dominated by gigantic sauropod dinosaurs such as Camarasaurus, Barosaurus, Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus.

Diplodocus is among the most easily identifiable dinosaurs, with its classic dinosaur shape, long neck and tail and four sturdy legs. For many years, it was the longest dinosaur known. Its great size may have been a deterrent to the predators Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus: their remains have been found in the same strata, which suggests they coexisted with Diplodocus.

One of the best-known sauropods, Diplodocus was a very large long-necked quadrupedal animal, with a long, whip-like tail. Its forelimbs were slightly shorter than its hind limbs, resulting in a largely horizontal posture.

The long-necked, long-tailed animal with four sturdy legs has been mechanically compared with a suspension bridge. In fact, Diplodocus is the longest dinosaur known from a complete skeleton. While dinosaurs such as Supersaurus were probably longer, fossil remains of these animals are only fragmentary.

The skull of Diplodocus was very small, compared with the size of the animal, which could reach up to 27 metres (90 feet), of which 6 metres (20 ft) was neck. Diplodocus had small, ‘peg’-like teeth that pointed forward and were only present in the anterior sections of the jaws. Its braincase was small. The neck was composed of at least fifteen vertebrae and is now believed to have been generally held parallel to the ground and unable to have been elevated much past horizontal. Modern mass estimates have tended to be in the 10 to 16 tonne (11–17.6 ton) range: 10 tonnes (11 tons); 11.5 tonnes (12.7 tons); 12.7 tonnes (14 tons); and 16 tonnes (17.6 tons).

Diplodocus had an extremely long tail, composed of about 80 caudal vertebrae, which is almost double the number some of the earlier sauropods had in their tails (such as Shunosaurus with 43), and far more than contemporaneous macronarians had (such as Camarasaurus with 53). There has been speculation as to whether it may have had a defensive or noisemaking function. The tail may have served as a counterbalance for the neck. The middle part of the tail had ‘double beams’ (oddly-shaped bones on the underside, which gave Diplodocus its name). They may have provided support for the vertebrae, or perhaps prevented the blood vessels from being crushed if the animal’s heavy tail pressed against the ground. These ‘double beams’ are also seen in some related dinosaurs.

Discovery and species

Several species of Diplodocus were described between 1878 and 1924. The first skeleton was found at Como Bluff, Wyoming by Benjamin Mudge and Samuel Wendell Williston in 1878, and was named Diplodocus longus (‘long double-beam’), by paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878. Diplodocus remains have since been found in the Morrison Formation of the western U.S. States of Colorado, Utah, Montana and Wyoming. Fossils of this animal are common, except for the skull, which is often missing from otherwise complete skeletons. Although not the type species, D. carnegiei is the most completely known and most famous due to the large number of casts of its skeleton in museums around the world.

The two Morrison Formation sauropod genera Diplodocus and Barosaurus had very similar limb bones. In the past, many isolated limb bones were automatically attributed to Diplodocus but may, in fact, have belonged to Barosaurus.

Copyright © 2007 Answers Corporation.


Diplodocus
 January 27, 2012

Filed under: Sauropoda —
The familiar long, low sauropod is known as Diplodocus. It is well-known from the many casts of the graceful skeleton of D. carnegii, the second species to be found. The casts, which appear in museums throughout the world, were excavated, reproduced and donated with finance provided by the Scottish-American steel magnate Andrew Carnegie in the early years of the 20th century.

Factbox
Name: Diplodocus, meaning ‘double beam’
Size: 27m (up to 40m in the case of D. hallorum) long and 3.6m high
Food: plants and leaves from trees
Lived: 150-138 million years ago in the Late Jurassic Period in North America

When humans walk, the movement of the ankles make the body move up and down. For sauropods like Diplodocus, any movement of their heavy bodies used up a lot of energy. Fossilised footprints show that sauropods had broad, round feet like an elephant’s, with short stubby toes.
A sort of wedge may have raised Diplodocus’ toes from the ground, just like the heel of a shoe. This meant that muscles did not have to work so hard to support the dinosaur’s body as it walked.
From its tiny head to the tip of its enormous tail, Diplodocus had a long line of bones called vertebrae. Its neck had 15, its back 10, and its tail about 70.
The neck and tail are finely balanced and as a result, Diplodocus could probably have raised itself on to its hind legs to reach high into the trees. The wear on the teeth shows that it could browse high in the treetops or among the undergrowth. Finds in the 1990s have led American palaeontologist Steven Czerkas to suggest that there may have been a row of horny spines down the neck, back and tail.
Diplodocus was built rather like a suspension bridge, with its front and back legs acting like twin towers. On an actual bridge, cables support the road that runs between the towers. Diplodocus’ long backbone was supported by muscles. So that the neck and tail could move easily, a tendon probably ran along the length of its backbone.
Diplodocus could fight off predators with its powerful whiplash tail, or rear up on its back legs using its tail as support. This freed the dinosaur’s massive front legs for defence. A large, curved claw on the inner toe could also be used as a sharp weapon.
Diplodocus’ neck was not as long as that of its Chinese cousin, Mamenchisaurus. Compared to the latter’s neck, which was 11m long,Diplodocus’neck was ‘only’ 7.5m long and its enormous weight was balanced by a long tail, which stopped the giant from tipping over. The bones that were hidden beneath Diplodocus’ skin and muscle were designed for strength and support, rather than speed.
In 2004, a presentation at the annual conference of the Geological Society of America made a case for Seismosaurus being a junior synonym of Diplodocus. This was followed by a much more detailed publication in 2006, which not only renamed Seismosaurus as Diplodocus hallorum, but also speculated that it could prove to be the same as D. longus.

Diplodocus  Carnegii 

Jura   Saurischia   Herbivoor  Lengte: 27m
Een nek van 7m, een staart van 14m, en in totaal kon Diplodocus wel 28m lang worden! Zijn enorme nek kon hij niet recht omhoog in de lucht steken. Wanneer hij rondliep hieldDiplodocus zijn nek en staart op 1 horizontale lijn. Hij at dus niet van de hoge blaadjes zoals andere langnekken maar van de lage varenplanten. In het Museum kan je zelf testen hoe dat precies in zijn werk ging! De lange diplodocus woog ongeveer 16 ton (dat zijn drie olifanten!); hij moet dagelijks een pak varens verorberd hebben… Zo’n enorme sloeber had niet veel te vrezen van vleeseters. Vooral jonge, zieke of uitgeputte Diplo’s konden het slachtoffer van bijvoorbeeld Allosaurus worden.Deze dino leefde 155-145 miljoen jaar geleden. Paleontologen vonden hem in Noord-Amerika 

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DIPLODOCUS LONGUS

misty

http://www.nu.nl/wetenschap/3640012/dinosaurus-verkocht-480000-euro.html

BBC  (with video )

Overblijfselen van de Diplodocus longus, die Misty wordt genoemd, zijn in de Amerikaanse staat Wyoming opgegraven en vervolgens naar Rotterdam vervoerd, waar het skelet voor het eerst in elkaar is gezet.

In Engeland is het skelet vervolgens geveild.

Het skelet van zeventien meter lang en zes meter hoog is zeldzaam omdat het bijna helemaal intact is gebleven. Naast Misty zijn er slechts vijf andere volledige skeletten van de Diplodocus longus gevonden.

Misty werd in 2009 gevonden door de elf en veertien jaar oude zoons van de Duitse paleontoloog Raimund Albersdörfer, die hun vader meehielpen met een opgraving. Toen Albersdörfer zijn zoons vervolgens een eindje verder weg stuurde om alleen te kunnen werken, vonden ze een reusachtig bot van de dino.

 

http://www.zie.nl/video/opmerkelijk/Dinoskelet-brengt-bijna-half-miljoen-euro-op/m1mzbpffg3p2

 

Diplodocus
http://carnivoraforum.com/topic/9329390/1/

 

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Rekonstrukcja przyżyciowa czaszki Dollodon bampingi
Rekonstructie   Dollodon bampingi
credit : Cretaceous Research

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667107001048

Paul, G. S. 2008. A revised taxonomy of the iguanodont dinosaur genera and species. Cretaceous Research 29/2, pp. 192-216.

Dracorex is a dinosaur genus of the family Pachycephalosauridae, from the Late Cretaceous of North America. The type (and only) species is Dracorex hogwartsia, meaning “dragon king of Hogwarts”. It is known only from one nearly complete skull discovered in the Hell Creek Formation in South Dakota by three amateur paleontologists from Sioux City, Iowa. The skull was subsequently donated to the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis for study in 2004, and was formally described by Bob Bakker and Robert Sullivan in 2006.

Anatomy
Dracorex, an herbivore, had a skull with spiky horns, bumps, and a long muzzle. Unlike some other pachycephalosaurs, Dracorex did not have a domed forehead but was instead flat-headed. The subadult animal was approximately 10 feet (3 m) long.
In all other respects, Dracorex is identical to the pachycephalosaur Stygimoloch. It has therefore been proposed that Dracorex is, in fact, a subadult or juvenile form of Stygimoloch. [citation needed]

The name Dracorex hogwartsia was inspired by young visitors to the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis as a tribute to both dragons (Dracorex means “dragon king”), which the animal resembled, as well as the Harry Potter series of books by J.K. Rowling (hogwartsia for the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, a fictional school from the popular series).

Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Marginocephalia
Family: Pachycephalosauridae
Genus: Dracorex
Binomial name Dracorex hogwartsia

Pachycephalosaurus, Stygimoloch, and Dracorex.

These were bipedal ornithischian dinosaurs that had hard bony domes on their heads, often complemented with an array of spikes

Dracorex was small with a relatively flat head with small spikes,
Stygimoloch was mid-sized with a small bony dome and huge horns,
and Pachycephalosaurus was large with a large bony dome and relatively small horns.

Together these dinosaurs appear to represent a growth series from juvenile to adult, all grouped together as Pachycephalosaurus, and the evidence can be found in the makeup of the bones.

http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/dinosaur/2009/10/bone-headed-dinosaurs-reshaped-their-skulls/

 

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140904/srep06196/fig_tab/srep06196_ft.html

 

 

 

 

 dreadnoughtus phylogeny-lacovara-et-al-2014-fig-3

 

 

 

dreadnoughtus-phylogeny-lacovara-et-al-2014-fig-3.

Grootste dinosaurus opgegraven in Argentinië

 

Wetenschappers hebben in Argentinië het grootste, bijna complete skelet van een titanosaurus opgegraven. De nieuwe dino heeft de naam Dreadnoughtus schrani. Deze reus was 26 meter lang en had een gewicht van 59 ton. Ter vergelijking: dat is twee keer zo lang als de Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Het 77 miljoen jaar oude Dreadnoughtus-skelet werd in 2005 gevonden in Argentinië. Het duurde vele jaren om het volledige skelet te analyseren. De onderzoekers vonden geen handjevol botten, maar zeker de helft van het complete skelet. Daarnaast zijn de gefossiliseerde botten in een goede conditie, waardoor te zien is waar de spieren verbonden waren. Dit geeft inzicht in de manier waarop deze plantenetende dinosauriër voortbewoog.

opgraving-954x715

Onderzoeker Kenneth Lacovara tussen de botten van ‘zijn’ dinosaurus.

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brachariosaurus  -300x208

De Brachiosaurus is één van de bekendste saurapode. Deze dino echter veel minder dan de Dreadnoughtus schrani.

Andere dino’s
De andere reuzendino’s zijn veel minder zwaar dan de Dreadnoughtus schrani. Neem de Elaltitan lilloi, die ‘slechts’ 43 ton weegt. Het is na de Dreadnoughtus de zwaarste sauropode. De Brachiosaurus en de Diplodocus wegen nog minder: respectievelijk 34 en 15 ton. Mogelijk leefden er Dreadnoughtus-dino’s die nog zwaarder waren dan de Argentijnse reuzendino. Toen de dino stierf, was de Dreadnoughtus schrani nog flink aan het groeien.Veel vragen
Op dit moment worden er diverse experimenten uitgevoerd om belangrijke vragen te beantwoorden. Hoeveel calorieën per dag hadden deze dino’s nodig? Konden ze knielen? Wat voor genitaliën hadden ze en hoe hadden deze dino’s seks? En hoe reguleerden zij hun eigen lichaamstemperatuur? Wetenschappers denken soms antwoorden op deze vragen te weten, maar er ontbreekt nog hard bewijs.

Robotmodel
Daarnaast wordt er een Dreadnoughtus-robot geprint met een 3D-printer. Deze robot zal hopelijk net zo lopen als de echte dinosaurus, die lange tijd geleden leefde. Dit geeft een beter beeld hoe het grootste landdier ooit zich voortbewoog.

Kenneth Lacovara, PhD, stands in his lab among the bones of the exceptionally complete dinosaur skeleton he discovered in Patagonia.
Kenneth Lacovara, PhD
 
°

 

  • Drinker
  • Dromaeosauroides
  • Dromaeosaurus * http://www.universe-review.ca/I10-72-Dromaeosaur.jpg
    Dromaeosaurus  was a wolf-sized theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (Upper Campanian) Period of what is now Alberta, Canada. The name means ‘running lizard’ and is derived from the Greek (dromeus ) meaning ‘runner’ and sauros ( meaning ‘lizard’). It is known from a partial skull and other bones (foot fragments, ribs), collected in what is now Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta. Dozens of isolated teeth have also been found.CharacteristicsDromaeosaurus differs from most other Dromaeosauridae in having a short, massive skull, a deep mandible, and large, robust teeth. In these respects Dromaeosaurus resembled the tyrannosaurs. A few bones are known from the hindlimb and they indicate that Dromaeosaurus was a powerfully built animal. Exactly how it lived and what it ate are still open to speculation. The teeth show moderate wear and chipping and seem to have been used for crushing and tearing, more than slicing through flesh; it is possible that Dromaeosaurus was more of a scavenger than other small theropods. It was probably better suited to tackling large prey than the more lightly built Saurornitholestes.
    The relationships of Dromaeosaurus are unclear. Although its rugged build gives it a primitive appearance, it was actually a very specialized animal. It is usually given its own subfamily, the Dromaeosaurinae; this group is thought to include Utahraptor, Achillobator, Adasaurus and perhaps Deinonychus. However, the relationships of dromaeosaurs are still in a state of flux. “Dromaeosaurus Morphotype A” is the designation given to a series of unusual, ridged dromaeosaur teeth from Alberta. These teeth probably do not belong to Dromaeosaurus, although it is unclear from what animal they do come. The type species is D. albertensis. The other species, lacking in material, may well be synonymous with it.Suborder: Theropoda
    Infraorder: Coelurosauria
    Family: Dromaeosauridae
    Subfamily: Dromaeosaurinae
    Genus: Dromaeosaurus
  • Dromiceiomimus Dromiceiomimus
  • Dromicosaurus – junior synonym of Massospondylus
  • Drusilasaura
  • Dryosaurus Dryosaurus

Dryosaurus

is een dinosauriër behorend tot de Euornithopoda, die tijdens het Late Jura (Kimmeridgien-Tithonien, zo’n 150 miljoen jaar geleden) leefde in het gebied van het huidige Noord-Amerika en Afrika.

In 1878 werd door Othniel Charles Marsh op basis van holotype YPM 1876, een schedel in 1876 gevonden in de Morrisonformatie, een soort van het geslacht Laosaurus, L. altus beschreven. In 1894 kwam Marsh tot de conclusie dat de soort een eigen geslacht waard was: Dryosaurus altus. De geslachtsnaam is afgeleid van het Klassiek Griekse dryos, “eik” en verwijst naar de vorm van de tanden; de soortaanduiding betekent “hoog”.

In de vroege twintigste eeuw vond een Duitse expeditie in Duits Oost-Afrika zeven skeletten die in 1919 door Virchow werden beschreven als Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki maar later werden toegekend aan Dryosaurus.

Dryosaurus was ruim drie meter lang, 1,7 meter hoog en woog 77 tot 90 kilo. Hij had grote ogen, lange dunne poten met drie tenen, korte voorpoten met vijf lange vingers, een lange nek en een staart voor de balans. Hij leefde in het laat Jura, 156 to 145 miljoen jaar geleden. Het dier had een papegaaiachtige bek. Hier konden taaie plantenstengels mee worden afgebeten. Achterin zijn bek had Dryosaurus een kauwbatterij van twintig tot dertig kleinere aaneengesloten tanden die steeds vervangen werden. Hiermee vermaalde hij alle planten die hij at tot een zachte verteerbare pulp.

Dryosaurus werd voeger ingedeeld bij de Hypsilophodontidae, maar tegenwoordig beschouwd als een lid van de Iguanodontia in de Dryosauridae. D.altus en D. lettowvorbecki worden tegenwoordig gezien als valide soorten. Hij werd bejaagd door vleeseters als Allosaurus en Ceratosaurus.

Zijn bescherming lag denkelijk in de kudde, zijn grote ogen en sprintvermogen. Als ze aan het eten waren, hielden dan minstens twee of drie dieren de wacht. Als ze bijvoorbeeld een troep ceratosaurussen zagen, sloeg een van de dieren alarm. Daarna renden ze met een snelheid van een zestig kilometer per uur weg. Hun gezichtsvermogen was uitstekend. Ze deelden het landschap met verschillende sauropoden, pterosauriërs, carnosauriërs en andere dieren.

 

 

-dysalotosaurus_figure_1

 

Das Ske­lett des Di­no­sau­ri­ers Dy­sa­lo­to­sau­rus let­to­wvor­be­cki im Mu­se­um für Na­tur­kun­de Ber­lin.
Co­py­right: Mu­se­um für Na­tur­kun­de Ber­lin

dysalotosaurus_figure_2

 

 

Die Kno­chen des Hirn­schä­dels von Dy­sa­lo­to­sau­rus (links) und die mit­tels Com­pu­ter-To­mo­gra­phie re­kon­stru­ier­ten 3D-Bil­der mit dem Ver­lauf des In­nen­ohrs (in blau and vio­lett).
Co­py­right: Mu­se­um für Na­tur­kun­de Ber­lin

http://www.schattenblick.de/infopool/natur/biologie/nbfor852.html

 

New study reveals patterns of dinosaur brain development

May 20, 2013   Source:   University of Bristol
Summary:
A new study sheds light on how the brain and inner ear developed in dinosaurs. Using high-resolution CT scanning and 3D computer imaging, it was possible to reconstruct and visualise the brain and inner ear of Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki — a small, plant-eating dinosaur, which lived 150 million years ago, in what is now Tanzania.

 

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130520114017.htm

Reconstruction of the brain in the young and fully grown Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki.

Credit: Stephan Lautenschlager, University of Bristol

 

 

dysalotosaurus 130520114017-large

 

 

 

Dysalotosaurus_ontogeny

Changes in brain and inner ear morphology visualised during the growth of Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki

 

The small, bipedal ornithopod dinosaur Dysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki is known from numerous fossils collected from the famous Tendaguru bone beds in Tanzania. The large number of well-preserved specimen has allowed the study of ontogenetic changes in the skeleton ofDysalotosaurus lettowvorbecki. In this study we were interested, if and how these changes would also be reflected in the brain anatomy. Studying different growth stages of Dysalotosaurus(a young individual of approximately three years of age and a fully grown specimen of more than 12 years of age) provided us with a unique opportunity to study their brain, and how it developed during the growth of the animal.

By looking at the brain and inner ear anatomy, our study found that the brain of Dysalotosaurusunderwent considerable changes during growth – most likely as a response to environmental and metabolic requirements. However, important parts responsible for the sense of hearing and cognitive processes were already well developed in the young individual.

More information on this study can be found here:
Lautenschlager, S. & Huebner, T. (2013): Ontogenetic trajectories in the ornithischian endocranium. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26, 2044-2050. DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12181

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