VIRTUAL DINOSAURS and links


Virtuele tentoonstelling
Linda Hall Library
5109 Cherry Street
The Paper Dinosaur ( 2009 )
Photo

1. Buckland, William. “Notice on the Megalosaurus or great Fossil Lizard of Stonesfield,” in: Transactions of the Geological Society of London, series. 2, vol. 1 (1824), pp. 390-396.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megalosaurus

2. Mantell, Gideon. “Notice on the Iguanodon, a newly discovered fossil reptile, from the sandstone of Tilgate Forest, in Sussex,” in: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 115 (1825), pp. 179-186.

http://www.dinohunters.com/
http://www.dinohunters.com/images/iggy%20tooth.jpg

3. Mantell, Gideon. The Wonders of Geology. London: Relfe and Fletcher, 1838.

4. Owen, Richard. “Report on British fossil reptiles. Part II,” in: Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Plymouth, July 1841, pp. 66-204.

5. Hawkins, Benjamin Waterhouse. “On visual education as applied to geology,” in: Journal of the Society of Arts, vol. 2 (1854), pp. 444-449.

6. Owen, Richard. Geology and Inhabitants of the Ancient World. London: Crystal Palace Library, and Bradbury & Evans, 1854.

7. Goodrich, Samuel Griswold. Illustrated Natural History of the Animal Kingdom. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1859.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hylaeosaurus

8. Hitchock, Edward. Ichnology of New England. A Report on the Sandstone of the Connecticut Valley, especially its Fossil Footmarks. Boston: William White, 1858.

9. Leidy, Joseph. “Notice of remains of extinct reptiles and fishes,discovered by Dr. F. V. Hayden in the Bad Lands of the Judith River, Nebraska Territory,” in: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 8 (1856), pp. 72-3.

10. Leidy, Joseph. “[Remarks concerning Hadrosaurus],” in: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Piladelphia, vol. 10 (1858), pp. 215-218.

10a. Lucas, Frederick A, “The dinosaur Trachodon annectens,” in: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 45 (1904), pp. 317-320.

11. Cope, Edward Drinker. “The fossil reptiles of New Jersey,” in: American Naturalist, vol. 3 (1869), pp. 84-91.

12. Owen, Richard. Monograph on the Fossil Reptilia of the Wealden Formation. Part IV. London: Paleontographical Society, 1857.

13. Wagner, Andreas. “Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der urweltlichen Fauna des lithographischen Scheifers,” in: Abhandlungen der Mathemat.-Physikalischen Classe der Koniglich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, vol. 9 (1861), pp. 65-124.

14. Owen, Richard. “On the Archeopteryx of von Meyer, with a decription of the fossils remains of a long-tailed species, from the Lithographic Stone of Solenhofen,” in: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 153 (1863), pp. 33-47.

15. Huxley, Thomas Henry. “On the Animals which are most nearly intermediate between birds and the reptiles,” in: Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 4, vol. 2 (1868), pp. 66-75.

15a. Marsh, Othniel Charles. “Restoration of some European dinosaurs, with suggestions as to their place among the Reptilia.” American Journal of Science, series 3, vol. 50 (1895), pp. 407-412.

16. Seeley, Harry Govier. “On some differences between the London and Berlin specimens referred to Archaeopteryx,” in: Geological Magazine, series 2, vol. 8 (1881), pp. 454-455.

17. Dollo, Louis. “Cinquieme note sur les dinosauriens de Bernissart,” in: Bulletin de Musee Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, vol. 3 (1884), pp. 129-146.

18. Marsh, Othniel C. “Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part VI: Restoration of Brontosaurus,” in: American Journal of Science, series 3, vol. 26 (1883), pp. 81-85.

19. Marsh, Othniel C. “Restoration of Stegosaurus,” in: American Journal of Science, series 3, vol. 42 (1891), pp. 179-181.

20. Seeley, Harry Govier. “On the Classification of the Fossil Animals commonly named Dinosauria,” in: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 43 (1888), pp. 165-171.

21. Marsh, Othniel C. “The dinosaurs of North America.” Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey, vol. 16 (1894-95), pp. 133-244. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896.

22. Hatcher, John Bell.Diplodocus (Marsh): Its osteology, taxonomy, and probable habits, with a restoration of the skeleton,” in: Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, vol. 1 (1901), pp. 1-63.

23. Merrill, George P. “Report on the Department of Geology for the Year 1900-1901,” in: Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Report of the U. S. National Museum, for the year ending June 30, 1901, pp. 81-91.

24. Knight, Charles R. “Diplodocus Restored. The largest creature that ever roamed the earth [cover illustration],” in: Scientific American, vol. 96, no. 24 (June 15, 1907), p. 485.

24a. Beasley, Walter. “Diplodocus: The greatest of all earthly creatures,” in: Scientific American, vol. 96, no. 24 (June 15, 1907), pp. 491-492.

25. Hay, Oliver P. “On the manner of locomotion of the dinosaurs, especially Diplodocus, with remarks on the origin of the birds,” in: Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 12 (1910), pp. 1-25.

26. Beecher, Charles E. “The reconstruction of a Cretaceous dinosaur, Claosaurus annectens Marsh,” in: Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 11 (1901-1902), pp. 311-324.

27. Lucas, Frederick A. “The Dinosaurs or terrible lizards,” in: Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, for the year ending June 30, 1901, pp. 641-647.

28. Sternberg, Charles H. Hunting Dinosaurs in the Bad Lands of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Lawrence, Kansas: Published by Charles H. Sternberg, 1917.

29. Brown, Barnum.Corythosaurus casuarius: Skeleton, musculature and epidermis,” in: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 35 (1916), pp. 709-716.

30. Osborn, Henry Fairfield. “Models of extinct vertebrates,” in: Science, new series, vol. 7 (1898), pp. 841-845.

31. Gilmore, Charles W. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1920. Series: Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Bulletin 110.

32. Dickerson, Mary Cynthia. “Charles R. Knight–Painter and sculptor of animals,” in: American Museum Journal, vol. 14 (1914), pp. 83-98.

33. Osborn, Henry Fairfield.Tyrannosaurus and other Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaurs,” in: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 21 (1905), pp. 259-265.

34. Osborn, Henry Fairfield. “Skeletal adaptations of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus,” in: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 35 (1916), pp. 733-771 [on Tyrannosaurus].

35. Osborn, Henry Fairfield. “Skeletal adaptations of Ornitholestes, Struthiomimus, Tyrannosaurus,” in: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 35 (1916), pp. 733-771 [on Struthiomimus].

36. Lambe, Lawrence M. The Cretaceous Theropodous Dinosaur Gorgosaurus. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1917. Series: Canada. Department of Mines. Geological Survey. Memoir 100.

37. Gilmore, Charles W. Osteology of the armored Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genus Stegosaurus. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1914. Series: Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Bulletin 89.

38. Lull, Richard Swann. Triassic Life of the Connecticut Valley. Hartford: Published by the State, 1915. Series: Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin no. 24.

39. Osborn, Henry Fairfield; Charles Craig Mook.Camarasaurus, Amphicoelias, and other sauropods of Cope. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, new series, vol. 3 (1921), pp. 247-387.

40. Gilmore, Charles W. “A nearly complete articulated skeleton of Camarasaurus, a saurischian dinosaur from the Dinosaur National Monument, Utah,” in: Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, vol. 10 (1925), pp. 347-384.

41. Gilmore, Charles W. “Osteology of Apatosaurus, with special reference to specimens in the Carnegie Museum,” in: Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, vol. 11 (1936), pp. 175-300.

42. Matthew, William D.; Walter Granger. “The most significant fossil finds of the Mongolian expeditions,” in: Natural History, vol. 26 (1926), pp. 532-534.

43. Osborn, Henry Fairfield. “Three new Theropoda, Protoceratops zone, central Mongolia,” in: American Museum Novitates, no. 144 (1924), pp. 1-12.

44. Heilmann, Gerhard. The Origin of Birds. New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1927.

45. Colbert, Edwin H. “Little dinosaurs of ghost ranch,” in: Natural History, vol. 56 (1947), pp. 392-399, 427-428.

46. Knight, Charles R. “Parade of life through the ages,” in: National Geographic, vol. 81, no. 2 (February 1942), pp. 141-184.

47. The Editorial Staff of Life; and Lincoln Barnett. The World We Live In. New York: Time, Inc., 1955.

48. Augusta, Joseph; illustrated by Zdenek Burian. Prehistoric Animals. London: Spring Books, [1957].

49. Ostrom, John H. Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. New Haven: Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, 1969. Series: Yale University. Peabody Museum of Natural History. Bulletin 30.

Table of Contents, Supplemental Items

This Table lists thirty-five works that are included in the Web catalog but are not actually on display in the exhibition of Paper Dinosaurs, 1824-1969. The works are listed by catch title in order of their appearance in the virtual exhibition, with links to each. The number with which each item begins indicates the work in the exhibition to which it is anchored. For example, “17a. A British Iguanodon from Brussels, 1895″ is associated with the exhibited item, “17. The Bernisssart Iguanodons, 1884.” Click here to see the Table of Contents for the Main Exhibit Items, or click here to see the Master Index and Bibliography.

1a. Plot’s Unrecognized Dinosaur Bone, 1676
3a. The Maidstone Iguanodon, 1840
7a. Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, 1859
7b. The Discovery of Hylaeosaurus, 1833
7c. Two Versions of Hylaeosaurus, 1833 and 1840
7d. Figuier’s World Before the Deluge, 1867
8a. Hitchcock’s First Footprints, 1836
9a. The Trachodon Tooth, 1860
10a. Hawkins’ Restoration of Hadrosaurus, 1868 [1904]
10b. The Hadrosaurus Bones, 1865
11a. The Discovery of Laelaps, 1866 [1871]
12a. Footprints in the Weald, 1854
13a. Nopcsa and a Dinner for Compsognathus, 1903
16a. Vogt’s Image of Archaeopteryx, 1880
17a. A British Iguanodon from Brussels, 1895
17b. Iguanodon on its Haunches, 1896
18c. Marsh’s Unpublished Brontosaurus Restoration, 1966
22a. The Complete Carnegie Quarry Map, 1901
22b. The Diplodocus carnegiei Skeleton, 1901
22c. Carnegie Diplodocus in the British Museum, 1905
24a. Diplodocus, the Human Dimension, 1899
24b. A Diplodocus Goes to Germany, 1907
25a. Slinking Diplodocus, 1909
25b. Holland Makes Hay, 1910
26a. Marsh’s Claosaurus, 1892
26b. What’s in a Name? The Trachodon Story
27b. Cope’s Diclonius, 1883
28a. The Skin of the Mummy, 1912
31a. Marsh’s Ceratosaurus, 1892
32a. Osborn’s Ornitholestes, 1903
32b. Allosaurus in Bone and Flesh, 1907 and 1914
33a. A Second Look at the First T. rex, 1906
33b. Diplodocus to Scale, 1899
34a. Three Views of the First T. rex Mount, 1916
34b. The T. rex Skull, 1912
38a. Anchisaurus, Triassic Dinosaur, 1893
41a. The Carnegie Apatosaurus Mount, 1936
44a. Other Heilmann Drawings, 1927
48a. Snorkeling Brachiosaurus, 1957
48b. A T.rex and Trachodon Tableau, 1957

Guide to dinosaurs from the University of California, Berkley
H2G2 – Written by the audience
H2G2 – Written by the audience
A guide to dinosaurs for children
A recent episode of Horizon
A recent episode of Horizon
The dinosaurs

were among the most successful animals ever to live on the Earth.

Their reign lasted over 100 million years – and if birds evolved from the dinosaurs, then their descendents are still alive today.

 

Rise and fall of the dinosaurs

The Truth About Killer Dinosaurs – 2005

The Baryonyx mystery

On Horizon: What really killed the dinosaurs?

On Horizon: T. rex – warrior or wimp?

The Discovery Channel special,

When Dinosaurs Roamed America, set new standards for scientific accuracy in depicting how dinosaurs looked and lived. Watch some of the dinosaurs in this animation from the program.

dino clips

Coelophysis Thrives
Windows | Real

dino clips

“Triple Threat”
Windows | Real

dino clips

Dinos in Drought
Windows | Real

dino clips

A Vertical World
Windows | Real

dino clips

Fall of Apatosaurus
Windows | Real

dino clips

Bird-Like Beast
Windows | Real

dino clips

New Discoveries
Windows | Real

dino clips

“Cretaceous Park”
Windows | Real

dino clips

Quezalcoatlus Flies
Windows | Real

New blood New bloodWhen dinosaurs first appeared the world was very different. There were no mammals, no birds and no lizards. But there were some lizard-like reptiles.
Time of the titans Time of the titansIn the Early Jurassic, dinosaurs started getting larger. Diplodocus was over 30 metres long – but even he wasn’t safe from predators.
A cruel sea Part3 A cruel sea
dinosaurs dominated the land, huge marine reptiles ruled the water. Ichthyosaurs looked very like dolphins – but they weren’t the top predators of the Jurassic seas.
Giants of the skies
The largest animals ever to fly were pterosaurs. But during their reign, birds as we know them were also beginning to appear.
Spirits of the ice forest Spirits of the ice forestThere’s considerable evidence that dinosaurs once lived at polar latitudes. How did they survive the cold?
Land of the giants Land of the giantsArgentinosaurus was the largest dinosaur ever – 35 metres long, and up to a hundred tonnes in weight.
The giant claw The giant claw75 million years ago the Mongolian desert was home to dinosaurs of all shapes and sizes – including one with the largest claw of all time.
Death of a dynasty Death of a dynastyWhy the dinosaurs died out is one of the most frequently asked questions of dinosaur experts. Will we ever know the answer?
Dino’s noorderlicht ;
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Artist impression van sdzsde krokodil  Dakosaurus andiniensis. [DAMNFX/National Geographic] 
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De populairste reconstructie van Microraptor gui. Volgens Chatterjee is dit echter niet de manier waarop hij vloog; het dier zou zijn achtervleugels onder de voorste vleugels hebben gehouden, als een dubbeldekker.
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Boven een impressie van een volwassen Massospondylus (ill: Kevin Dupois), onder een schets van het opgerolde embryo (afb:Gabriel Lio,Universiteit van Toronto).

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Artist impression van twee gehoornde dino’s in gevecht.

Pachycephalosaurus
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Artist impression van de dino-lunch [Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, door Xiaoping Xu]

Reponamannus robustus

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Foto van het fossiel van Zonghe Zhou en Fucheng Zhang. Bron: Science, 22 ok 2004

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Een akelige vondst, vorige maand gedaan in China: 34 dode babydinosaurusjes en een volwassene. Te zien aan de nog opgeheven kopjes werd het gezin zeer plotseling gedood. (Nature)

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Het slapende draakje uit China, gezien van bovenaf en van opzij. De lijntjes en letters zijn door de onderzoekers aangebracht om de verschillende botjes uit elkaar te houden. (Xing Xu et al., Nature)

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In het echt is het fossiel zo’n drie centimeter groot. (Nature, Eric Buffetaut)

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Solenodon wist niet wat hij zag. (Ryerson University)

Univ of bristol

Uitgestorven reptielen

Een fossiel dat een amateur-paleontoloog 16 jaar geleden heeft gevonden, blijkt een 92 miljoen jaar oude voorloper te zijn van de Mosasaurus. Het fossiel heeft de naam Dallasaurus turneri gekregen, naar de vinder van het fossiel Van Turner. (livescience, sciencedaily)

E

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/12/1220_021220_droughtdino.html
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/05/0504_050504_utah_dino.html

I

K

L

M

Mapusaurus roseae
Massospondylus
Dinosaur Embryos

Mekosuchidae

N

NEUQUENRAPTOR

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/02/0223_050223_neuquenraptor.html

O

P

Pterosauria

S

T

Tyrannotitan chubutensis

Z

Zoogdierreptiel

Nederlandsche geologische vereniging

http://www.geo.uu.nl/ngv/geonieuws/geonieuwszoek.php?onderwerp=dinosauriers

(Dino)sauriërs:

  • 697 Gevederde dinosauriër zonder veren wijst op complexe evolutie
  • 694 Dinosauriër uit de bodem van de Noordzee
  • 655Tyrannosaurus rex van de zee’ was krokodil, maar ook beetje vis en beetje dino
  • 650 Raadselachtige groei van dinosoort
  • 647 Tyrannosaurus rex had vorstelijke zintuigen
  • 641 Dinokeutels hebben opzienbarende inhoud
  • 639 Mosasauriërs waren prooi van haaien
  • 636 Tiende, zeer goed bewaard gebleven, exemplaar van Archaeopteryx heeft nog kenmerken van tetrapode dinosauriërs
  • 626 Vliegvermogen ontwikkelde zich ook bij dromaeosauri챘rs
  • 624 Vroege vogels en pterosauriërs zaten elkaar niet in de weg
  • 619 Plesiosaurus at ook schelpdieren van de zeebodem
  • 615 Stierven de dino’s toch niet uit door een inslag?
  • 598 Dinosauriër verandert in krokodil
  • 596 Dinoembryo’s geven inzicht in ontwikkeling tot lopen op achterpoten
  • 571 Bot van Tyrannosaurus rex bevat nog zachte weefsels
  • 540 Dino’s vormden prooi voor zoogdieren
  • 535 Pterosauriërs legden leerachtige eieren
  • 518 Dino’s stierven niet uit door lage temperaturen na inslag van asteroïde
  • 501 Dinograf wijst op zorgzame ouders
  • 479 Dinouitwerpselen nauwelijks op waarde te schatten.
  • 449 Reusachtige dino gevonden in Spanje
  • 342 Kannibalisme bij een dinosaurus uit Madagaskar
  • 300 Brachiosaurus was minder zwaar
  • 298 Mummie van dino gevonden
  • 274 Ook opkomst van dinosauriërs te danken aan inslag
  • 267 Geen kind maar neefje voor Tyrannosaurus rex.
  • 264 Diefstal pakt duur uit voor dief
  • 247 Dino’s liepen in veelsoortige kuddes rond
  • 241 Dinosauriërs stierven niet allemaal uit na inslag op grens Krijt/Tertiair
  • 240 Tyrannosaurus rex was geen hardloper
  • 231 Dino’s woonden niet alleen in warme streken
  • 219 De evolutie van maximale lichaamsgrootte
  • 186 Dinoneuzen namen paleontologen lang bij de neus
  • 184 Vogels blijken te kenschetsen als onvolledig doorgegroeide sauriërs
  • 177 Golfbaan bedreigt bijzondere dinosporen
  • 161 Dinoeieren geven beter inzicht in kop van titanosauri챘rs
  • 158 Verenigde Staten nemen wettelijke maatregelen tegen plundering fossielvindplaatsen
  • 157 Echtpaar aangeklaagd voor ‘diefstal’ van een Allosaurus
  • 156 Bijtkracht van Allosaurus biomechanisch bepaald
  • 152 Vooruitstekende tanden bij dinosaurus uit Madagaskar
  • 119 Dinosauriërs nestelden in waddengebied
  • 101 Kalkoen heeft zelfde streng DNA als dinosauriër
  • 95 Sauriër bezat staart met typische vogelkenmerken
  • 82 Skelet van jonge Tyrannosaurus gevonden
  • 51 De eerste transoceanische dinosauriër
  • 48 Afdrukken in modder onthullen loop van dinosauriër
  • 34 In het Laat-Krijt waren polen niet met ijs bedekt
  • 19 Reuzendinosauriërs waren zeer snel volwassen
  • 7 Dinosauriërs hadden geen bolle wangen

What makes an ornithischian dinosaur? All terrestrial animals and even marine animals derived from terrestrial stocks have hip girdles, or pelvises, and all hip girdles are composed of three bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis.All ornithischians are united by a pubis pointing backward, running parallel with the ischium.The name “Ornithischia” means “bird-hipped,” and birdsalso have pelvises in which the pubis points backwards.However, birds are more closely related to the Saurischia, or “lizard-hipped” dinosaurs, than to the ornithischian dinosaurs featured on this page.

Ornithischian pelvis

The hip girdle of a typical ornithischian dinosaur is enlarged in the second diagram at right. In the diagram, the pubis is pale orange, the ilium is red, and the ischium is brown.

There were many kinds of ornithischian dinosaurs, dating back to the early Jurassic. The Ornithopoda included the hadrosaurs (“duck-billed dinosaurs”), the iguanodontids, the heterodontosaurs, the hypsilophodontids, and various other dinosaurs. The Ceratopsia included the horned dinosaurs, the Ankylosauria and Stegosauria (now usually grouped together in the Thyreophora) included various types of armored dinosaurs, and the Pachycephalosauria, the extremely thick-skulled pachycephalosaurs.

Ornithischiacontains several groups of herbivorous dinosaurs, including several basal groups, but primarily three large ones:

Thyreophora includes the various armored dinosaurs, like Stegosaurus and Ankylosaurus.

Marginocephalia consists mainly of the pachycephalosaurs (bone-heads) and the ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs), like Triceratops.

Ornithopoda is the third Ornithischian group, and includes not only small bipedal plant-eaters like Heterodontosaurus, but also the often large hadrosaurs, or “duck-billed dinosaurs,” like Maiasaura and Edmontosaurus.

Introduction to Thyreophora

The armored dinosaurs

Stegosaurus reconstruction
Stegosaurus. Drawing © Rob Gay.

The Thyreophora are a group of small to quite large armored plant-eating dinosaurs. The most familiar are Stegosaurus and Ankylosaurus, though there were many others. Ornithopods are one of three major groups of Ornithischia, or “bird-hipped” dinosaurs.

The earliest Thyreophoran was Scutellosaurus, a slender-tailed beast known from the earliest Jurassic of western North America, and is among the earliest known Ornithischians. It is among the smallest of the armored dinosaurs, and grew to only one and one-half meters long. Like its kin, it had armor plates set into the skin of its back, though these were not as large as in later Thyreophorans.

The next known Thyreophoran is Scelidosaurus, which lived in western Europe a little over 180 million years ago. This dinosaur grew to about four meters long and a little over a meter tall, walking on all four legs. Like later

Ankylosaurus reconstruction
Artist’s reconstruction of Ankylosaurus.

armored dinos, it had spikes along its back, and hoof-like claws. Though this is a very important dinosaur for understanding the evolution of this group, it was not discovered until 1980!

The remaining Thyreophorans consist of two major groups: the Stegosauria and the Ankylosauria. The stegosaurids had two rows of spikes or plates runnning along their backs and tails. They were most diverse in the late Jurassic, though the genus Dravidosaurus lived in southern India in the late Cretaceous, when the group went extinct. Stegosaurids are known from most of the globe.

The other group, the Ankylosauria, had more extensive armoring, and often whole patches of external bone were fused into plates. Early in the Cretaceous, most of these belonged to the Nodosaurid subgroup (though one genus, Sarcolestes, is known from the Jurassic). In the later Cretaceous, most are Ankylosaurids, distinguished by their broad heads, spikes extending from the backs of their skulls, and heavy club-like tails. It is generally believed that the club could be used as a defensive weapon against predators.

Introduction to Marginocephalia

Triceratops skull

 

Pachycephalosaurus skull
Skull of Pachycephalosaurus at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Photo © 1996 Pamela J.W. Gore, Georgia Perimeter College.
 

The Marginocephalia (“fringed heads”) are a clade of extinct herbivorous dinosaurs that inherited a slight shelf or frill at the back of their skull from their common ancestor back in the Early/mid Cretaceous period. This “margin” waselaborated differently in the two main subgroups of the Marginocephalia. You are probably familiar with some of these taxa — they include the “bone-headed” chycephalosaurs (above left) and the frilled Ceratopsians, such as the early Protoceratops and the famous Triceratops (at right).

Marginocephalia is one of three major groups of the Ornithischia, or “bird-hipped” dinosaurs. They are closely related to the Ornithopoda and some scientists suggest that the origin of Marginocephalia may lie within that group, close to the Heterodontosauridae

 

Introduction to Ornithopoda

Baby Maiasaura

The Ornithopoda are a group of medium to large plant-eating dinosaurs. They include one of the earliest discovered dinosaurs, Iguanodon, as well as the famous crested and “duck-billed” hadrosaurs. Several of these are noted for the spacious and bizarrely shaped sinus regions in their skulls. All ornithopods were herbivores and mostly bipedal.Ornithopods are one of three major groups of Ornithischia, or “bird-hipped” dinosaurs. They are closely related to the Marginocephalia.
Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypsilophodon

Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Ornithopods

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